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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

Hornpipe

Hornpipe   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
3,350 words

...on this pure step-dance technique. In Ireland the hornpipe is distinguished from the jig by its duple time, and from the reel by the number of accents to the bar (the reel having one and the hornpipe two). A “single” is in 2/4 time, a ladies dance employing light shuffles and batters in an easy and graceful style. The “double” is in 4/4 time, and as a male dance exploits more difficult trebling steps with much drumming and grinding. The body and arms are kept still, and this trial of skill has been developed to competitive championship standards. See also ...

Nswezi

Nswezi   Reference library

Peter Hoesing

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
308 words

...buzzing aerophones ( bugwala ), to accompany ritual songs.Nswezi drums, like the ubiquitous Uganda drum (also mbuutu or baakisimba ), have hide bottom heads, thinner skin batter heads, and twisted hide tension cords that bind the heads tightly over open-ended cylindrical-conical shells. Tuning involves adjusting the cords, usually by tightening them. A nswezi drum differs from a typical Uganda drum in that the lower, conoidal portion of the shell is concave rather than convex. As a result, these drums sound different from drums of neighbouring areas (e.g.,...

Ḍhāk

Ḍhāk   Reference library

Alastair Dick, Carol M. Babiracki, and Andrew Alter

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
722 words

...non-tribal folk musicians and some tribal groups, it is similar in construction to the ḍholkī of southern Bihar but much larger and cylindrical or slightly barrel-shaped. The drum hangs from the player’s left shoulder and is held at his left side with its goatskin or calfhide batter-head facing forward. The drummer uses thin reed sticks, one in each hand, or a thick wooden stick in his right hand and a bamboo stick in his left. The drum’s rear head is of oxhide, with a temporary tuning paste of resin and/or burnt oil residue applied in a circular patch at...

Drum

Drum   Reference library

Jayson Kerr Dobney

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,559 words

...in the Colonial period. The side drum (so named because it is worn on a sling that hangs to the player's side) was paired with a fife and was in use throughout Europe by the 16th century. Such drums can be documented in North America by the 1630s. The side drum has two heads—the batter head, which is played with two sticks, and the snare head, which has cords (made of gut) that stretch across the diameter of the head and rattle when the drum is played. A length of rope zigzags back and forth between hoops that hold the heads in place; this allows adjustment of...

Drum set

Drum set   Reference library

Thomas J. Kernan

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,337 words

...In the closing years of the 19th century drummers abandoned the double-drumming technique in favor of keeping both hands free for use on the snare drum and other accessories. Drummers crafted pedals to allow one foot to depress a lever that sent a beater toward the bass drum's batter head. In most cases the pedals also propelled a beater to strike a cymbal that was mounted above the drum's top hoop, between the drummer's legs and his stool, or to one side of the drum head, depending on the pedal's motion and the striking Roy C. Knapp's trap set, including...

Drum

Drum   Reference library

James Blades, Janet K. Page, Edmund A. Bowles, Anthony King, Mervyn McLean, Mary Riemer-Weller, Robert Anderson, James Blades, and James Holland

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
9,683 words
Illustration(s):
1

...head and be taut enough to produce a crisp and immediate response to the stroke on the batter head. They are adjusted by a screw mechanism in which is incorporated a snare release, making possible instant release of the snares to obtain such effects as ‘muffled’, ‘muted’, or ‘tom-tom’, and equally important, to obviate the distressing ‘buzz’ caused (with snares on) by sympathetic vibration with other instruments. Some drums also have internal snares, fitted to the batter head. The correct tensioning of the heads and their quality are equally important to the...

Lute

Lute   Reference library

Klaus Wachsmann, James W. McKinnon, Robert Anderson, Ian Harwood, Diana Poulton, David van Edwards, Jonathan Santa Maria Bouquet, Lynda Sayce, Diana Poulton, and Tim Crawford

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
15,156 words
Illustration(s):
3

...archlute forms. An important tutor for this type of lute was Thomas Mace’s Musick’s Monument (1676), in which it was classed as a French lute; Talbot ( c 1695), however, called it the ‘English two headed lute’. For Talbot the ‘French lute’ had 11 courses, with all the strings on a single head. There has been some discussion as to the size of these instruments. Talbot measured the string length of a 12-course instrument of this type as 59.7 cm; iconographical sources show all sizes. To date, six examples of this type have been found with fingered string lengths...

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