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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

Gonzaga, Antonio

Gonzaga, Antonio (1875–?)   Reference library

María de Lourdes Ghidoli and Kate Adlena Cronin

Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,005 words

...work of a chef in a setting known for its excellent orchestras and singers might seem outlandish, but it was an unprecedented show, and Gonzaga offered up an attractive menu. His cooking class included the preparation of a vegetable soup, pejerrey (silverside) filet fried in batter (Roman style), a thick rib roast, and French toast with syrup, among other dishes. As a final touch, he presented the national specialty dishes: Creole stew and asado con cueros . The performance was a success, and Gonzaga was cheered by the audience that filled the theater. In...

Indigenous Mobilizations and the Mexican Government during the 20th Century

Indigenous Mobilizations and the Mexican Government during the 20th Century   Reference library

María L. O. Muñoz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
9,380 words

...struggles of the Mexican Revolution ( 1910–1920 ) by joining, or being coerced to join, the armies of various revolutionary leaders, and they did so with their own interests in mind. 1 Following the revolution, government leaders and civilians alike sought to rebuild a country battered by internal warfare. Part of the rebuilding process after 1920 included cultural and visual representations of particular views of the revolution and its victors. As part of that project, José Vasconcelos (minister of public education) supported the works of artists across...

Rock Art Research Methods

Rock Art Research Methods   Reference library

Jeremy Hollmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
15,702 words

...7 Many (perhaps most) rock markings are referential—that is, they have a referent in the form of an object or an organism and are more or less recognizable depending on the conventions and techniques used to depict them. 8 Gestural markings, such as scatters of peck marks, battered edges of rocks, and grooves, on the other hand, do not necessarily depict any “thing”; rather, these markings are evidence of the performance of repeated actions, which the mark makers may have regarded as important and significant. For example, repeated and patterned scratches...

Violence

Violence   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...as the abuser moves to phase two, the acute battering stage, where the most serious violence erupts. The victim tries to protect herself by fighting back, calling the police, or fleeing. In phase three, the loving contrition or “honeymoon” period, the batterer may be apologetic, remorseful, and shower the victim with gifts and promises to change. The victim remains hopeful and attempts to salvage the relationship. Eventually, with the return of the conflict and tension, a new cycle of violence begins. The types and dynamics of domestic violence are quite...

co‐operative movement

co‐operative movement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
477 words

...owned and controlled by the shareholder‐farmers. In the eyes of its more visionary leaders, such as the unionist Sir Horace Plunkett or the nationalist George Russell (AE), the co‐operative movement had the potential to reconstruct an agriculture and rural society battered by the economic depression of the later 19th century. Co‐operative societies took three major forms. There were the co‐operative creameries producing butter, which were located in the traditional dairying areas of Munster and Ulster. There were agricultural societies which...

Tulum

Tulum   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,248 words

...East Coast style that was peculiar to the Late Postclassic period and to the eastern coast of Yucatán. It is marked by rough-laid, poorly bonded, slab masonry; heavy layers of plaster to cover uneven stonework and to carry fresco murals; exterior walls leaning outward (negative batter); and beam-and-mortar roofs. Triple doorways formed by two front columns are common, as is the use of multiple columns to form a front colonnade. The Castillo is the tallest building at the site, and by its size, location, and orientation can be identified as the central...

child welfare

child welfare   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,431 words

...often left there by parents who hoped to retrieve them in better times. By the 1880s, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, with branches in most urban centres, had taken on the cause of domestic violence, and was offering practical and legal support to battered women and children. The National Council of Women of Canada , founded in 1893 , brought new dynamism to a wide range of child welfare causes, including infant mortality, child labour and immigration, delinquency, and ‘mental hygiene’. The institutionalization of child welfare...

Cacaxtla

Cacaxtla   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,045 words

...Epiclassic period, particularly the red-on-brown and the stick-polishing wares. The theater-type braziers are similar to those of the Teotihuacan tradition and associated with the rain god Tlaloc. Also common are the tripod vessels with carved decoration, painted with symbolic motifs, like the Venus symbol. In the category of domestic ceramics, there were bowls, pots, and a new item— comales of several diameters for grilling tortillas and other maize-based batters. There were also tripod plates with solid supports, used for eating; they had the traditional...

Games

Games   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,440 words

...it bounces on the ground twice. Another popular juego is pegale al bate , hit the bat. This juego entails rolling a large ball at a bat that is lying on the ground. If the ball hits the bat, the child behind the bat's turn is over and the roller becomes the batter. If the ball misses the bat, the batter uses the bat to hit the ball back to the pitchers. These are popular barrio juegos. Another juego admired in the barrio is marbles, or jugar a las canicas . Of course, there are different variations of marbles from neighborhood to neighborhood. One variation...

Piedras Negras

Piedras Negras   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,268 words

...buried structures exist under other leveled areas. Low buildings were clustered around a limestone outcropping at the summit of the “Acropolis,” with steps leading up to a deep chasm. The architecture of the period was built with carefully shaped stones and dense cement, and the battered slopes were slathered with plaster. The superstructures generally comprise wattle-and-daub construction, smoothed and painted red. A noteworthy feature of such buildings is their ritual termination; in two places, the summit of the Acropolis and Structure F-2, the Maya destroyed...

Cuisine

Cuisine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,173 words

...dishes that smell of tender sweet corn and of steaming potatoes, dishes that contrast white rice and black beans. Want is a demanding mistress. It tests the imagination severely and sharpens intuition; it shuns primness but maintains a spark of rebellion and the shadow of that battered dignity that leads one to find bits of onion, garlic, tomato, cilantro, and parsley that produce the ferocious air of immediate cooking, the cooking barred from recipe books until someone garnishes it with words such as “exquisite,” “sublime,” or “delicate.” In education the...

Young Women’s Christian Association

Young Women’s Christian Association   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,782 words

...The end of the war would not only soon change race dynamics but also would pave the way for new less restrictive social and employment roles for women. These changes led to a decline in the usefulness of dormitory-type housing for women nationwide and the eventual shift of local YWCAs to special purpose residential facilities, such as battered women’s shelters. NACW-sponsored residencies also closed in response to societal changes. To facilitate such changes, the YWCA in 1962 established an Office of Race Relations, with Dorothy Height as head. That office...

Food and Literature

Food and Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,674 words

...men in the family, he believes in asking and not demanding anything from a woman. Lázaro struggles, not knowing how to ask a woman out on a date. With a lack of role models, Lázaro learns to communicate with his hands. His hands kneading the dough enable him to transform the batter into “marvelous, stretched, and winged beings inarguably full of love” (Ríos, p. 24). This leads him to find courage within himself. In the collection of poems The Smallest Muscle in the Human Body ( 2002 ) Ríos shows the application of life's simple joys through the enjoyment...

culture

culture   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
37,999 words

...synthesized for commercial uses, which transformed the field of human nutrition worldwide. It is perhaps incongruous that two of the 20th century's leading researchers in diet and nutrition should come from the country which gave the world such coronary horrors as the deep‐fried battered Mars Bar. Indeed, despite Scotland's reputation for research in this field—the Rowett Institute, founded in 1913 with Boyd Orr as its first director, remains an internationally renowned centre for research into nutrition and health—the diet of the Scots continues to be a...

South Africa

South Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,584 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Cape of Good Hope and went on to become the first European explorer to reach India by sea. For the next 150 years, European sailors stopped periodically along the Cape, which was about halfway between India and ports in Europe, to collect food and fresh water and to repair their battered ships. In 1647 the crew of the grounded Dutch ship Haarlem were left at Table Bay to salvage the cargo and await the arrival of the following year’s trading fleet. Upon their return to Amsterdam, they recommended the area around Cape Peninsula as a suitable site for a...

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