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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

Curtain wall

Curtain wall   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to give the defenders both cover and sighting. A projecting gallery of timber (hoarding) might also be fitted along the wall-head, as also on the summit of the towers and gatehouses, to allow the outer base of the wall to be defended against picks, bores, and battering rams. That base might also be battered or splayed out farther to strengthen and defend it and so that projectiles dropped from the apertures or murder-holes could ricochet or splinter to do more widespread damage to the assailants. Sometimes the whole face of the bank on which the curtain wall...

foods, prepared

foods, prepared   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,628 words

...: a stew of organ meat. offella : a turnover of grated cheese, eggs, raisins, spices; baked. pipes farces : fingers of cheese coated with a batter, deep fried. pomesmoille, poumes amole, applumos, emplumeus : apple sauce, boiled with almond milk, optional sugar, spices. pommedorry, pomes dorre, pomes endoryd : ground beef and saffron, pepper, raisins, boiled; formed in balls, spit-roasted and glazed with egg yolk or a batter of almond milk, flour, sugar, yolks, and parsley. porree : stewed greens or a salad. potage, potagee, potagio, poterous, potee, ministra,...

Belvoir Castle

Belvoir Castle   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ward. It consists of two almost square enceintes, one inside the other, both defended by projecting rectangular towers. The outer enceinte (100 × 110 m) is surrounded on three sides by a rock-cut ditch, 20–25 m wide and 12 m deep, from the bottom of which the walls rise on a battered Belvoir Castle . Begun c. 1168, plan: (a) outer main gate; (b) barbican; (c) inner gate; (d) west gate; (e) postern; (f) gate-tower to inner ward; (g) inner ward; (h) cisterns; (i) outer ward; (j) postern gates base. The east side, however, was protected by the natural scarp...

Military architecture and fortification

Military architecture and fortification   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...or placed at the head of a fixed bridge or drawbridge. Bastejas . Raised gun platforms; the term is usually applied to north European fortifications in the early 16th century. Bastion . Projecting tower at the angle of two walls in a fortification. Batter . Backward slope of the surface of a wall; inward inclination from the vertical; to slope inward. Bergfried [Ger.]. Tall, slim watch-tower, rarely residential. Berm . Ledge; space on top of the scarp wall to prevent loose earth falling in the ditch or moat; continuous...

Castle

Castle   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
9,019 words
Illustration(s):
1

...fortification applied to towns and cities and may have been the earliest type of castle. Certainly the type persisted, and although archaeologists have applied the misleading term ‘ring-work’ to early examples only, castles consisting simply of a fortified enclosure are found in all periods, increasingly in stone, and they include some of the major fortresses in the West, for example Caernarfon. While in the 12th century the great tower of stone succeeded the motte as the most favoured type of donjon, it is sometimes equally notable by its absence. In a feudal...

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