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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

Genre

Genre   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,197 words
Illustration(s):
2

...rather than the ideal, genre motifs became more popular, both in monumental sculpture and in the minor arts. Sculptors created vivid and expressive figures of varying moods and ages: surviving examples include old destitutes, a black African, urchins and fishermen, dwarfs and a battered boxer. The most celebrated of such large-scale marble works include the Old Woman (New York, Met.), usually believed to be an original Hellenistic work of the late 2nd or early 1st century bc ; the Old Shepherdess (Roman copy of an original of the late 2nd or early 1st...

trade, Greek

trade, Greek   Reference library

Paul Anthony Cartledge

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,378 words

...generally between about 1200 and 800 bc that in these dark centuries regional and international trade dwindled to vanishing-point; the few known professional traders were typically men of non-Greek, especially Phoenician , origin. In book 8 of Homer ’s Odyssey the sea-battered hero finds his way at last to the comparative calm and safety of Phaeacia, a never-never land set somewhere in the golden west, only to be roundly abused by a Phaeacian aristocrat for looking like a sordidly mercenary merchant skipper rather than a gentleman amateur sportsman. ...

trade, Greek

trade, Greek   Reference library

Paul Anthony Cartledge

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,606 words

...between about 1200 and 800 bc that in these dark centuries regional and international trade dwindled to vanishing-point; the few known professional traders were typically men of non-Greek, especially Phoenician , origin. See traders . In book 8 of Homer's Odyssey the sea-battered hero finds his way at last to the comparative calm and safety of Phaeacia, a never-never land set somewhere in the golden west ( see scheria ), only to be roundly abused by a Phaeacian aristocrat for looking like a sordidly mercenary merchant skipper rather than a gentleman...

trade, Greek

trade, Greek   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,096 words

...by the Greek world between c. 1200 and 800 bc that in this Dark Age regional and international trade dwindled to vanishing‐point; the few known professional traders were typically men of non‐Greek, esp. Phoenician , origin. In Homer 's Odyssey (bk. 8) the sea‐battered hero finds his way at last to Scheria, a never‐never land set somewhere in the golden west, only to be abused by a young Phaeacian aristocrat for looking like a sordidly mercenary merchant skipper rather than a gentleman amateur athlete. Hesiod , composing perhaps about the...

Arms and armour

Arms and armour   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
2,672 words

...their own practical engineering genius. The simplest technique for attacking a stronghold was for troops to form a testudo (‘tortoise’) by interlocking their shields over their heads as a protection against missiles. More elaborate devices included siege towers and mobile battering rams, while Greek artillery pieces powered by springs of twisted fibres were also adopted and refined, so that by the end of the Republic powerful and sophisticated catapults, shooting heavy bolts or stones, were standard equipment in the legions. These could be extremely...

Military architecture and fortification

Military architecture and fortification   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
5,194 words
Illustration(s):
2

...be substantial, with up to three ditches, the outermost being of a type known as Punic, with a vertical outer slope to trap an enemy attracted by the shallow inner slope. Other devices included thorn hedges or concealed metal spikes ( lilia ). A flat berm separated the ditches from the ramparts, usually not more than 50 m wide, to keep the ditches within firing range. Ramparts were often up to 2.5 m high with a palisade on top; their earthen fill made them impregnable against battering-rams. They were frequently built on a corduroy of logs, laid at a right...

Technology

Technology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,141 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and surviving fragments from the Hellenistic Alexandrian writers Ctesibius of Alexandria ( fl. 290–250 bce ), Philo of Byzantium ( c.200 bce ), and Heron of Alexandria ( fl. c.60 ce ) describe such ordnance as siege ladders, battering rams, and fire raisers (or “flame Syracusean and Macedonian ambitions spurred further advances in man-powered missile launchers (“ballistae”): the composite handheld gastraphetes or belly-bow ( c.400 , Syracuse), the earliest...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...), in which other refinements include a ‘batter’ or inward inclination to the exterior planes of walls, inward curvature of the stylobate in plan and a declination from the horizontal of the platform. Not all of these deflections are visible with the unaided eye, but they created a great escalation in building costs in the Classical period. (b) Religious . The temple played a pivotal role in the development of Classical architecture because experiments in temple architecture were often incorporated into other types of buildings. Iktinos may have brought Greek...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
90,898 words
Illustration(s):
41

...horizontal soles suggesting a simple upright pose . The introduction of metal tools in ec ii enabled sculptors to attempt larger, more three-dimensional figures. But schematic forms, such as the Louros type, which is an abstract version of the earlier Plastiras type, continued. The most characteristic ec ii type is the folded-arm figurine, ranging in size from c. 100 mm to almost life-size ( c. 1500 mm). Its body is three-dimensional but never fully rounded. The main features are a triangular, spade- or almond-shaped head turned upwards, an elongated...

Euripides

Euripides (c.485–406bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
8,369 words
Illustration(s):
1

...crane. It is like a late refinement of an earlier tableau that shows another possible use of the deus convention: Medea, no god, but something like a daimōn , appears above the stage building, out of range and holding their dead children in her arms, just as Jason tries to batter down its doors. Her horrible triumph could not be more complete. Typically for Euripides, neither of these coups de théâtre is designed simply for effect. He is working the audience, forcing us to reconsider what the action we have seen means in a stunning, new light. In the case...

Archaeology

Archaeology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
29,974 words
Illustration(s):
3

...acquired by the government for the British Museum in 1816 . In a significant shift of policy and taste, the Elgin Marbles , unlike the Aegina marbles , were not extensively restored. Original creations of Athens’ golden age could now be studied in their original if battered purity. During the course of the nineteenth century the British Museum, along with other European collections, made other major acquisitions of original Greek sculptures. The expansions of such Hellenic holdings further reinforced the belief in the centrality of Greek art in the...

trireme

trireme  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[Ar]The earliest type of Greek warship which used a battering ram in the prow as its main weapon. Named after the three banks of oars by which it was propelled, it was the standard warship of the 5th ...

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