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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

KESTEL

KESTEL   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,821 words

...types, also emerged in the lowest strata, suggesting the existence of a Late Chalcolithic phase in this mine as well. Sounding S2 has established several discernible features about this chamber. First of all, cassiterite was being mined in the third millennium. The technique entailed fire setting and then battering the ore with heavy hammerstones. Mortars, pestles, and bucking stones indicate that some ore beneficiation was also taking place inside the mine. It is apparent from the stone tool types found inside that hammerstones for battering and...

Weapons and Warfare

Weapons and Warfare   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,511 words

...semicircular. Although there are no excavated examples, Egyptian gateways in later periods were always of the simple straight type, and it is likely that they were so in this period also. It appears that the Egyptians had not developed very sophisticated tactics in field warfare. They had, however, clearly made great advances in siege warfare, as tomb paintings show the use of siege ladders and an early version of the battering ram to create breaches in walls. The first period for which there is extensive evidence of fortifications in the Levant is Early...

Fortifications

Fortifications   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
13,409 words
Illustration(s):
8

...core; with internal, boxlike brick constructions; or, most commonly, with sloping layers of alternating soil types. There is not a single case where a city wall was found to be incorporated within the rampart. This absence of a defensive wall means that these earthen ramparts cannot be interpreted as fortifications against military attack: they were neither designed to prevent the access of chariots nor could they provide a response to the battering ram, allegedly introduced at that time (Yadin, 1955 ). It is more likely that the earthen ramparts were a...

Ṣafuṭ, Tell

Ṣafuṭ, Tell   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,663 words

...Ṣāfûṭ.” In Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan , vol. 3, edited by Adnan Hadidi , pp. 279–282. Amman, 1987a. Highlights include a gilded bronze deity, Late Babylonian seal impression, and Late Iron Age casemate wall reinforced in its most vulnerable segment by a battered wall. Wimmer, Donald H. “ Tell Ṣāfûṭ Excavations, 1982–1985: A Preliminary Report. ” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan . 31 (1987b): 159–174. Discusses findings from areas A–E, including especially area D and segments of area A subsequently removed as part of the...

Lithics

Lithics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
9,186 words
Illustration(s):
6

...base. Hammerstones and pounding stones, varying from pecked and battered round cobbles to ground and worn stones, are found at virtually all sites. Large stone rings are frequently discovered, alternatively interpreted as digging-stick weights or weights, or, at coastal sites, as anchors or net weights. Basaltic vessels, a few examples of which are known from the Neolithic period (Tel Dan), achieve the highest craftsmanship during the Chalcolithic period. [See Dan .] Two types of basaltic (sometimes actually phosphoritic) vessels are common—the...

Shechem

Shechem   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,116 words
Illustration(s):
3

...type buildings. Although Wright initially proposed that these structures were a courtyard-temple complex, architectural modifications during the four phases of the MB II period provide a picture of domestic and industrial uses more appropriate to an administrative or palac unit. During stratum XIX the city's fortifications were dramatically augmented by a massive earth and marl embankment. In field V, on the west, this consisted of a high mound, 30 m wide at its base, footed inside by wall D and on the outer perimeter by the addition of a battered stone...

Assyrians

Assyrians   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,634 words
Illustration(s):
2

...voluntarily and would not field an army to fight, the Assyrian army surrounded a strategic town. All traffic in and out of the city was cut off and, if this maneuver did not bring capitulation, the army would attempt to penetrate the walls by various techniques: tunneling, battering rams, or building earthen ramps up the wall. Once the town was taken, it was thoroughly pillaged, and the inhabitants either were taken prisoner or slaughtered in gruesome ways as an example to the other towns in the region. Excellent organization and tactics, together with...

Lachish

Lachish   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,633 words
Illustration(s):
3

...type, and 73.96 percent of the identifiable royal stamps include the city name Hebron. All the stamped handles belong to storage jars of type 484, following Tufnell's classification (Tufnell, 1953 ), but many jars of this type were not stamped. Neutron activation analysis has shown that these jars were produced of similar clay, originating in the region of Lachish, indicating that they were manufactured at a single regional center. Ten jars with stamped handles and many unstamped jars were restored. It appears thai jars of all die types found were...

Building Materials and Techniques

Building Materials and Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,911 words
Illustration(s):
10

...ousted the hand-modeled type. Whatever other advantages there may be in molded mud bricks (stiffer construction and better bonding), it was the only type of manufacture appropriate for mass producing the enormous quantities required for the great city walls. From the beginning, both square and rectangular molded bricks were used. There was and still is a facile theory that square mud bricks are more proper to Mesopotamia and rectangular bricks to Egypt. Whether there is much significance in this theory, the fact remains that both types were always equally...

Rock Art Research Methods

Rock Art Research Methods   Reference library

Jeremy Hollmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
15,702 words

...7 Many (perhaps most) rock markings are referential—that is, they have a referent in the form of an object or an organism and are more or less recognizable depending on the conventions and techniques used to depict them. 8 Gestural markings, such as scatters of peck marks, battered edges of rocks, and grooves, on the other hand, do not necessarily depict any “thing”; rather, these markings are evidence of the performance of repeated actions, which the mark makers may have regarded as important and significant. For example, repeated and patterned scratches...

maul

maul   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
14 words

...[Ar] A type of massive, heavy, stone hammer used for battering rock...

trireme

trireme   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
44 words

...[Ar] The earliest type of Greek warship which used a battering ram in the prow as its main weapon. Named after the three banks of oars by which it was propelled, it was the standard warship of the 5th and 4th centuries bc...

maul

maul  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ar]A type of massive, heavy, stone hammer used for battering rock surfaces.
Banyan Cave

Banyan Cave   Reference library

Joyce C. White

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
508 words

...in prominence. One piece of iron was recovered. The fauna recovered from the site indicate a broad-spectrum economic strategy exploiting a range of environmental zones, and include large to small mammals, fish, shellfish, birds, and crustaceans. Bones of larger species are battered, and bones of all species show evidence of burning. A greater variety of species as well as over twenty hearths in the lower period levels suggest intensive and repeated use of the site, probably to exploit upland and forest resources. Plant macrofossils generally support the picture...

Gamla

Gamla   Reference library

Danny Syon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,886 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for “kosher” oil. A large oil press was constructed at this time in the Western Quarter, which included a built-in mikvah . This press too is of the Judean type. Yet another, unexcavated oil press is situated at the far western edge of the town. There may be more presses buried underground. A large iron ploughshare found in the Western Quarter and several mills of the Olynthus type and the Pompeian type are sure evidence of grain growing and flour production on a commercial scale. Pollen analysis corroborates the presence of grain and olives and suggests that...

Rehob

Rehob   Reference library

Amihai Mazar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,191 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of a fortification system or of a large structure. Later (in stratum III) a 31.2 ft (9.5 m) wide offset–inset mud-brick wall replaced the former casemate structure, while utilizing it as its foundation. This new wall was probably intended to withstand the threat of Assyrian battering rams. South of this wall and in Area A on the summit of the upper mound, several phases of dwellings were excavated. Evidence for the Assyrian conquest of 732 b.c.e. includes the collapse of the massive fortification wall; its destruction created a thick layer of brick debris...

Writing

Writing   Reference library

Denise Schmandt-Besserat, James L. Swauger, Marvin A. Powell, Christopher A. Rollston, James P. Allen, M. O’Connor, Christopher Rollston, William D. Whitt, Christopher A. Rollston, William D. Whitt, and Christopher Rollston

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
9,004 words

...long ago as thirty thousand years and perhaps even the forty thousand years we accept for Cro-Magnon artistry. We are aware that, as this is written, somewhere people are using spray cans to paint names and designs on walls and sidewalks, while others create similar products by battering with stones or by incising with metal tools. We can but guess at the motivation of most of those who carved and painted. Modern Native Australians have revealed the meanings of specific designs and groups of designs to researchers. Native Americans in the western United States of...

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