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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

Lahore

Lahore   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,727 words
Illustration(s):
1

...earliest Mughal site is the garden and pavilion (c. 1530 ) of Kamran , half-brother of the emperor Humayun ( see Mughal , §II, B ), which stood on the right bank of the Ravi. Both garden and pavilion were extensively reconstructed in the 17th century, after which they were battered by flooding and eventually cut off by a river meander; they were radically reconstructed by the government of Punjab in 1990 . A more enduring Mughal monument is Lahore Fort, a roughly square enclosure standing high above the Ravi floodplain. It was first improved by Akbar (...

Military architecture and fortification

Military architecture and fortification   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
10,258 words
Illustration(s):
4

...the middle of the 16th century the Algerian littoral came under Ottoman control. At Algiers the Turks enclosed the town with walls of the traditional type, preceded by a ditch and having nine gates. Flanked by bastions, the Turkish gateways were, with the exception of that linking the city with the interior of the kasba, of simple straight-axis plan, in contrast to the bent entrances common in Morocco. The battered walls of the city and fortress (h. 12 m; w. 1.6–2.5 m) are occasionally marked by rectangular salients. A wall-walk extends along the top of the...

Minaret

Minaret   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
3,591 words
Illustration(s):
3

...sight as Ottoman domination extended into Syria, Egypt, North Africa, Greece and the Balkans. Nevertheless the traditional square minaret continued to hold its own in North Africa as did a hybrid octagonal type. Beyond the traditional North African and southwest Asian lands of Islam, minarets have a varied history. In West Africa, for example, the battered mud tower over the mihrab of traditional mosques shows some formal similarities to Almohad experiments in minaret placement, while along the East African coast the traditional staircase minaret was most...

Genre

Genre   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,197 words
Illustration(s):
2

...rather than the ideal, genre motifs became more popular, both in monumental sculpture and in the minor arts. Sculptors created vivid and expressive figures of varying moods and ages: surviving examples include old destitutes, a black African, urchins and fishermen, dwarfs and a battered boxer. The most celebrated of such large-scale marble works include the Old Woman (New York, Met.), usually believed to be an original Hellenistic work of the late 2nd or early 1st century bc ; the Old Shepherdess (Roman copy of an original of the late 2nd or early 1st...

Arms and armour

Arms and armour   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
2,672 words

...their own practical engineering genius. The simplest technique for attacking a stronghold was for troops to form a testudo (‘tortoise’) by interlocking their shields over their heads as a protection against missiles. More elaborate devices included siege towers and mobile battering rams, while Greek artillery pieces powered by springs of twisted fibres were also adopted and refined, so that by the end of the Republic powerful and sophisticated catapults, shooting heavy bolts or stones, were standard equipment in the legions. These could be extremely...

Harness and trappings

Harness and trappings   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,365 words

...of mail-and-plate, and in its present state weighs 118 kg; six of its original eight pieces survive (two of the three panels for the right side are missing), and it would originally have weighed 159 kg. (Such heavy protection was particularly useful when elephants were used as battering rams against castle doors, which were often fitted with sharp projecting spikes.) The side elements include square panels decorated with embossed trotting elephants, lotus flowers, birds and fish, but the armor is otherwise plain except for the scalloped edges of the small...

Housing

Housing   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
4,001 words
Illustration(s):
3

...dressed by occasional screened overhanging windows to project wealth and influence. Further south a distinctive additional flavor is apparent in Abha, a highland region benefiting from greater rainfall where there is a strong tradition of banded rubble walling laced with timber. Battered walls and small openings combine to produce a semi-fortified aspect even more apparent in the higher and greener lands of the Yemen. Here the courtyard traditions are abandoned. The clustered multi-story houses of Jiddah become towered streets, patterned and pulsating with...

Military architecture and fortification

Military architecture and fortification   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
5,194 words
Illustration(s):
2

...be substantial, with up to three ditches, the outermost being of a type known as Punic, with a vertical outer slope to trap an enemy attracted by the shallow inner slope. Other devices included thorn hedges or concealed metal spikes ( lilia ). A flat berm separated the ditches from the ramparts, usually not more than 50 m wide, to keep the ditches within firing range. Ramparts were often up to 2.5 m high with a palisade on top; their earthen fill made them impregnable against battering-rams. They were frequently built on a corduroy of logs, laid at a right...

Vernacular architecture

Vernacular architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
17,884 words
Illustration(s):
10

...of the Harappan civilization that flourished on the banks of the Indus from the early 3rd to the late 2nd millennium bce . Other house-types are depicted in rock carvings, reliefs and wall paintings from the period c. 200 bce –500 ce . Two types of village cottage in particular that were still being extensively built in the late 20th century can be identified from these sources: one type had thick battered mud walls and a curvilinear thatched roof with overhanging eaves, probably with a bamboo structure, while the other had timber and bamboo walls...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
117,015 words
Illustration(s):
77

...; see also Muqarnas ) north of Samarra. It was built by an Uqaylid prince to honor a descendant of the fifth Shi῾ite imam. From the exterior, the battered brick walls, 10 m to a side and 12 m high, support a high octagonal drum and three tiers of convex and angular elements crowned with a small cupola. The interior is a riot of carved plaster ornament culminating in five diminishing tiers of muqarnas . The type continued to be popular in Iraq, to judge from the 20 or so examples remaining. The handful of shrines to minor Shi῾ite saints in Mosul, such as...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...), in which other refinements include a ‘batter’ or inward inclination to the exterior planes of walls, inward curvature of the stylobate in plan and a declination from the horizontal of the platform. Not all of these deflections are visible with the unaided eye, but they created a great escalation in building costs in the Classical period. (b) Religious . The temple played a pivotal role in the development of Classical architecture because experiments in temple architecture were often incorporated into other types of buildings. Iktinos may have brought Greek...

Byzantine art and architecture

Byzantine art and architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
12,284 words

...by Christ (945–9) (Paris, Cab. des Médailles) are examples. Individual statues do not seem to appear before the 12th century; the Theotokos Hodegetria ( see madonna types ) in London (V & A) is possibly one of the earliest surviving free-standing statuettes. Only small numbers of marble carvings have survived; those still in Istanbul (Archaeological Mus.) include the battered pieces of an elaborate carved ambo from Salonika, with arcaded niches containing a Madonna and Child and worshippers. The 11th- or 12th-century marble Deësis , with Christ,...

Gothic art and architecture

Gothic art and architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
7,068 words

...the norm, and in big polyptychs in Italy the elaborate frames become more complicated and spiky. In Italy also fresco cycles become very important. Very little medieval painting has survived in England because of the depredations of the Reformation and later of the Puritans: the battered wreckage of the superb Westminster retable survives to illustrate the quality of much of what is lost. Manuscripts fared better; once their jewelled or precious metal covers had been pulled off, the book itself was of no further interest. Fortunately, a large amount of stained...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
90,898 words
Illustration(s):
41

...horizontal soles suggesting a simple upright pose . The introduction of metal tools in ec ii enabled sculptors to attempt larger, more three-dimensional figures. But schematic forms, such as the Louros type, which is an abstract version of the earlier Plastiras type, continued. The most characteristic ec ii type is the folded-arm figurine, ranging in size from c. 100 mm to almost life-size ( c. 1500 mm). Its body is three-dimensional but never fully rounded. The main features are a triangular, spade- or almond-shaped head turned upwards, an elongated...

Egyptian architecture

Egyptian architecture  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Ancient Egyptian architecture was mostly that of the monumental temple and tomb, and featured obelisks, battered walls, pylon-towers, pyramids, cavetto (or gorge) cornices, large columns with lotus, ...
doorway

doorway  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Opening for an entrance to a building, part of a building, or an enclosure, together with its immediate structure and surroundings, often of considerable architectural magnificence. Classical Antique ...
naos

naos  

Reference type:
Overview Page
1 Inner cell or sanctuary of a Greek temple, equivalent to the Roman cella, containing the statue of the deity.2 Sanctuary of a centrally planned Byzantine church.3 Small shrine, often portable, e.g. ...
naos

naos   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
72 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1. Inner cell or sanctuary of a Greek temple , equivalent to the Roman cella , containing the deity’s statue. 2. Sanctuary of a centrally planned Byzantine church. 3. Small shrine , often portable, e.g. the battered -sided Egyptian type, carried by a Naöphorus figure. J.Curl ( 2005 ) ; D ( 1950 ) naos ( 3 ) ( above ) Naöphorus ( right ) (Museo Nazionale,...

pyramid

pyramid   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
245 words

...Solid figure with a square base and steep battered triangular sides terminating in an apex. Used in Ancient Egypt for funerary structures, celebrated examples are the pyramids at Giza, near Cairo, Egypt ( c. 2551– c. 2472 bc ). Other types include the stepped form found in both Ancient-Egyptian and Meso-American Pre-Columbian architecture , but in the latter region the buildings were temple-platforms rather than tombs: examples include the Ancient-Egyptian pyramid at Saqqara, built by Imhotep for King Zoser ( c .2630– c .2611 bc ), and the...

Sumerian architecture

Sumerian architecture   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
224 words

...of buildings were the buttress -like projections used to articulate walls, a type of wall-treatment that was to extend well into the last centuries bc . By the mid-third millennium bc painted and relief ornamental schemes were in widespread use, as in the elevated shrine of Al ’Ubaid, where friezes , free-standing columns covered in mosaics , copper sculptures, and other enrichment occurred in profusion. The huge ziggurat at Ur (C22 bc ) had enormous battered walls, monumental flights of stairs , and a temple on the summit of the platform....

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