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self-reflexive

Subject: Literature

A term applied to literary works that openly reflect upon their own processes of artful composition. Such self‐referentiality is frequently found in modern works of fiction that repeatedly ...

self-reflexivity

self-reflexivity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
39 words

...self-reflexivity Practice advocated in the context of feminist methodology, intended to foster awareness of how one’s position as a researcher (for example, one’s race, ethnicity, gender, able-bodiedness, and class background) impacts on one’s research and the knowledge one...

governmentality

governmentality   Quick reference

Jonathan Joseph

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
613 words

...to the private sphere. The notion of governance as devolved away from a central point and as operating through different networks and the self-regulation of individuals themselves is strongly congruent with neoliberal thinking, and Foucault himself dedicated a significant amount of his work to the study of this phenomenon. Neoliberalism as a form of governmentality is concerned to govern through the market. It is a reflexive form of governance, critical of established liberal approaches through its awareness of the need to more actively promote market...

Interviews as a Means to Understand (and Silence) Contemporary Africa and Its Voices

Interviews as a Means to Understand (and Silence) Contemporary Africa and Its Voices   Reference library

Patrycja Stys

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,737 words

...challenges call for self-scrutiny. This “process of self-reference” is usually referred to as “reflexivity,” referencing “ways in which the products of research are affected by the personnel and process of doing the research” ( Davies, 2002 , p. 5). Although anthropology has embraced a reflexive turn since the 1960s, in recognition of its colonial foundations and complicity in their reinforcement ( Asad, 1973 ), much political science repudiated such introspection as mere “navel gazing” ( Wedeen, 2010 , p. 258). In its extreme, reflexivity can lead...

political economy

political economy   Quick reference

Peter Burnham

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,837 words

...the self‐regulating market, which simultaneously satisfies self‐interest and the needs of the community. The benefits of the division of labour, the true source of social progress and individual well‐being, were limited simply by the extent or size of the market—hence Smith’s preference for free trade and winding back the economic role of the state. Unlike the later Marginalist approach to economics developed principally by Stanley Jevons ( 1835–82 ), Carl Menger ( 1840–1921 ), and Leon Walras ( 1834–1910 ), the economy is not seen by Smith as a self...

South-East Asia–Australia

South-East Asia–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,076 words

...in northern Australia ( see Asylum seekers ). One consequence of this approach was reflexive Australian support for whatever methods were required to stabilise boundaries in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Malaysia, and a failure to understand that, as the case of East Timor proved, this could have the opposite effect to what was intended: repression and violence—the methods of stabilisation—actually encouraged secession and independence. Australia generally supported self-determination for the peoples of the region as the old European empires collapsed,...

Political biography

Political biography   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,954 words

...empirical work being accessible elsewhere‐with his subjects, this was simply not the case. It is a serious point‐and it continues to reinforce the ‘sociographical’ impulse‐but was belied by Brett's interpretative Menzies , which appeared before Martin's authorised life. The reflexive and theoretically informed approach has led to more questioning, provisional, and exploratory tactics even in what might be deemed ‘insider’ biography, such as Don Watson 's revelatory reflections on life inside Paul Keating 's office, Recollections of a Bleeding Heart (...

International relations

International relations   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,033 words

...Policy, provided further opportunities for scholars to engage in policy. By no means all IR scholars, however, worked in applied or policy areas. It was a measure of the growing sophistication of the field that IR theory became an increasingly salient part of it, dealing in self-reflexive manner with approaches, conceptual frameworks, and explanatory paradigms. In what follows, some of the categories and taxonomies of theory are deployed as a way of delineating major currents of thought in the study of international relations in Australia. The focus here is on...

Political Science

Political Science   Reference library

Philippe C. Schmitter

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,907 words

...assumption that the objects of research are also its subjects. In the case of politics, this means that agents can make relevant choices that are not completely determined by the conditions in which they find themselves. It also implies that the subjects have the capacity for reflexivity. They are historical in the sense that their present actions are influenced by reflections (“memories”) from the past, and, hence, by learning that they may alter their responses when faced with similar situations in the present. Inversely, they can be anchored in habits...

Cosmopolitanism

Cosmopolitanism   Reference library

Magdalena Nowicka

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,224 words

...the twenty-first century drives the interest in cosmopolitanism. While moral cosmopolitanism does not necessarily entail a duty to reshape the international political world order, the moral cosmopolitan commitment requires everyone to judge each situation in context and to act reflexively ( Kleingeld, 1999 , 516). This requirement often translates into ‘institutional cosmopolitanism’, which focuses on examining which institutional arrangements best meet the normative demands. Thereby, scholars writing within this tradition seek to examine cosmopolitanism as a...

International Relations Theory

International Relations Theory   Reference library

Ken Booth

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,769 words

...those of substance. For many, regardless of “culture,” the logics of realism remain the first choice. The salience of alternative schools nevertheless continues to grow, as does an acceptance of the desirability of being generally literate in them and of being theoretically reflexive. Four schools beyond realism now demand most attention. Constructivist ideas have converged with English-school thinking (for which Hedley Bull's 1977 book The Anarchical Society is foundational) to develop a distinctive research program about the norms and institutions of...

Postcolonial Approaches to the Study of African Politics

Postcolonial Approaches to the Study of African Politics   Reference library

Grace Adeniyi Ogunyankin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,979 words

...in Nigerian history. In N. C. Ejituwu & A. O. I. Gabriel (Eds.), Women in Nigerian history: The Rivers and Bayelsa states experience (pp. 95–102). Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Onyoma Research Publications. O’Shaughnessy, E. (2008). African urban discourse: Invisible and reflexive practice in African cities. Postamble , 4 (2), 1–17. Oyewumi, O. (1997). The invention of women: Making an African sense of Western gender discourses . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Rakodi, C. (2008). Order and disorder in African cities: The social roots and...

Conceptualizing Militias in Africa

Conceptualizing Militias in Africa   Reference library

Rebecca Tapscott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,768 words

...the “Afghan Local Police .” New York, NY: Human Rights Watch. Jentzsch, C. , Kalyvas, S. , & Schubiger, L. (2015). Militias in civil wars. Journal of Conflict Resolution , 59 (5), 755–769. Latour, B. (1988). The politics of explanation: An alternative. In Knowledge and reflexivity: New frontiers in the sociology of knowledge (pp. 155–176). London, UK: SAGE. Mampilly, Z. (2007). Civil militia: Africa’s intractable security menace. Edited by D. J. Francis . African Affairs , 106 (425), 722–723. Mosse, D. (2004). Is good policy unimplementable?...

The International Political Sociology of Risk

The International Political Sociology of Risk   Reference library

Luis Lobo-Guerrero

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,848 words

.... “Reflexivity,” as he later explained, “is not simply a redundant way of emphasising the self-referential quality that is constitutive of modernity.” Instead, it refers to a “distinct second phase: the modernisation of modern society ” ( Beck et al. 2003 :1): When modernization reaches a certain stage it radicalizes itself. It begins to transform, for a second time, not only the key institutions but also the very principles of society. But this time the principles and institutions being transformed are those of modern society. The role of reflexive...

Teaching International Political Sociology

Teaching International Political Sociology   Reference library

Vincent Pouliot

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,559 words

...and how it works? At the most basic level, reflexivity refers to self-awareness. Applied to the scholarly enterprise, reflexivity means the critical examination of social scientific knowledge as enmeshed, just like any other social practice, in relations of struggle over the meaning of the world. If social reality is constructed through the social construction of knowledge, then this must also include social science ( Guzzini 2000 ). To borrow Bourdieu’s ( 2001 ) apt formulation, in this context being reflexive means returning IPS’s analytical weapons...

The Third Debate and Postpositivism

The Third Debate and Postpositivism   Reference library

Thierry Balzacq and Stéphane J. Baele

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,917 words

...social sciences” ( Kurki and Wight 2010 :24). Lapid ( 1989 :249) concludes that “for many years the international relations discipline has had the dubious honor of being among the least self-reflexive of the Western social sciences.” In this context, (neo)liberal and (neo)realist approaches are accused of lacking “perspectivism,” that is, of failing to operate reflexively vis-à-vis their objects and modes of inquiry. They are seen as sharing the same questionable ontological and epistemological “unspoken presuppositions” ( Ashley and Walker 1990 :263),...

The Practice Turn in International Relations Theory

The Practice Turn in International Relations Theory   Reference library

Jérémie Cornut

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,078 words

...give access to ways of doing things. PT points to implicit knowledge and tacit understanding, whereas interviews often provide reflexive analyses by necessity. Habits, doxa, and mental dispositions are such because they are taken for granted. Being unarticulated is precisely what makes them powerful - one might even argue that the more hidden they are, the more influential they will be. Practical knowledge “appears self-evident to its bearer” ( Pouliot 2008 :271) and that is why it cannot easily be verbalized in interviews. Scholars should also take into...

Is There a Discipline of IR? A Heterodox Perspective

Is There a Discipline of IR? A Heterodox Perspective   Reference library

Ralph Pettman

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,427 words

...become more reflexive, that is, they begin to see the limits of their modernism and its capacity to distort what is known about international relations in these terms. The most obvious shortcoming is that demonstrated by the postmodernists, that is, by those who turn untrammeled reason back upon itself to ask what our reasons might be for prioritising reason in this way? In asking this question postmodernists are refusing to see any subject as sacrosanct, including that of the untrammeled use of reason itself. Nor need such reflexivity stop there. Why...

Identity in International Relations

Identity in International Relations   Reference library

Felix Berenskoetter

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,159 words

...). To the extent that IR scholars have an ethical responsibility to be reflexive about the impact of their work, a critical stance vis-à-vis practices of defining Self/Other images should be common sense. Conclusion The concept of “identity” has come a long way in International Relations scholarship, and despite all its vagueness it is here to stay. If we accept that there is a “will to manifest identity,” then the processes by which boundaries are drawn around conceptions of Self, such as a national identity, must be considered a central dimension of...

Religious Values and Worldviews

Religious Values and Worldviews   Reference library

Raja M. Ali Saleem

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
11,316 words

...and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.” (Genesis: 26–28) Humans are like God and have been given powers of creativity, intelligence, self-consciousness, and reflexivity. Furthermore, they have been given a moral nature that distinguishes them, according to the Christian worldview, from animals. Most of us “know” that deceiving others is wrong and that we “ought” to speak the truth. These values do not come from any particular...

Behavioralism

Behavioralism   Reference library

Inanna Hamati-Ataya

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,011 words

...standards for analytical rigor and practical usefulness to the world they attempt to explain, and sometimes reform. Behavioralism, in short, “has made the discipline more self-conscious and self-critical” ( Somit and Tanenhaus 1967 :190). Self-consciousness, however, is historical and therefore relative. Nowadays, behavioralism is often viewed as belonging to the discipline's least reflexive past. This mainly results from the systematic confusion of behavioralism with positivism, the latter being critiqued for combining the two greatest sins postpositivists...

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