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self-reflexive

Subject: Literature

A term applied to literary works that openly reflect upon their own processes of artful composition. Such self‐referentiality is frequently found in modern works of fiction that repeatedly ...

The International Political Sociology of Risk

The International Political Sociology of Risk   Reference library

Luis Lobo-Guerrero

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,848 words

.... “Reflexivity,” as he later explained, “is not simply a redundant way of emphasising the self-referential quality that is constitutive of modernity.” Instead, it refers to a “distinct second phase: the modernisation of modern society ” ( Beck et al. 2003 :1): When modernization reaches a certain stage it radicalizes itself. It begins to transform, for a second time, not only the key institutions but also the very principles of society. But this time the principles and institutions being transformed are those of modern society. The role of reflexive...

Teaching International Political Sociology

Teaching International Political Sociology   Reference library

Vincent Pouliot

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,559 words

...and how it works? At the most basic level, reflexivity refers to self-awareness. Applied to the scholarly enterprise, reflexivity means the critical examination of social scientific knowledge as enmeshed, just like any other social practice, in relations of struggle over the meaning of the world. If social reality is constructed through the social construction of knowledge, then this must also include social science ( Guzzini 2000 ). To borrow Bourdieu’s ( 2001 ) apt formulation, in this context being reflexive means returning IPS’s analytical weapons...

The Third Debate and Postpositivism

The Third Debate and Postpositivism   Reference library

Thierry Balzacq and Stéphane J. Baele

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,917 words

...social sciences” ( Kurki and Wight 2010 :24). Lapid ( 1989 :249) concludes that “for many years the international relations discipline has had the dubious honor of being among the least self-reflexive of the Western social sciences.” In this context, (neo)liberal and (neo)realist approaches are accused of lacking “perspectivism,” that is, of failing to operate reflexively vis-à-vis their objects and modes of inquiry. They are seen as sharing the same questionable ontological and epistemological “unspoken presuppositions” ( Ashley and Walker 1990 :263),...

The Practice Turn in International Relations Theory

The Practice Turn in International Relations Theory   Reference library

Jérémie Cornut

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,078 words

...give access to ways of doing things. PT points to implicit knowledge and tacit understanding, whereas interviews often provide reflexive analyses by necessity. Habits, doxa, and mental dispositions are such because they are taken for granted. Being unarticulated is precisely what makes them powerful - one might even argue that the more hidden they are, the more influential they will be. Practical knowledge “appears self-evident to its bearer” ( Pouliot 2008 :271) and that is why it cannot easily be verbalized in interviews. Scholars should also take into...

Is There a Discipline of IR? A Heterodox Perspective

Is There a Discipline of IR? A Heterodox Perspective   Reference library

Ralph Pettman

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,427 words

...become more reflexive, that is, they begin to see the limits of their modernism and its capacity to distort what is known about international relations in these terms. The most obvious shortcoming is that demonstrated by the postmodernists, that is, by those who turn untrammeled reason back upon itself to ask what our reasons might be for prioritising reason in this way? In asking this question postmodernists are refusing to see any subject as sacrosanct, including that of the untrammeled use of reason itself. Nor need such reflexivity stop there. Why...

Identity in International Relations

Identity in International Relations   Reference library

Felix Berenskoetter

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,159 words

...). To the extent that IR scholars have an ethical responsibility to be reflexive about the impact of their work, a critical stance vis-à-vis practices of defining Self/Other images should be common sense. Conclusion The concept of “identity” has come a long way in International Relations scholarship, and despite all its vagueness it is here to stay. If we accept that there is a “will to manifest identity,” then the processes by which boundaries are drawn around conceptions of Self, such as a national identity, must be considered a central dimension of...

Behavioralism

Behavioralism   Reference library

Inanna Hamati-Ataya

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,011 words

...standards for analytical rigor and practical usefulness to the world they attempt to explain, and sometimes reform. Behavioralism, in short, “has made the discipline more self-conscious and self-critical” ( Somit and Tanenhaus 1967 :190). Self-consciousness, however, is historical and therefore relative. Nowadays, behavioralism is often viewed as belonging to the discipline's least reflexive past. This mainly results from the systematic confusion of behavioralism with positivism, the latter being critiqued for combining the two greatest sins postpositivists...

Risk and Security

Risk and Security   Reference library

Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,481 words

... 15 (2), 180–96. Bauman, Z. (2000) Liquid Modernity . Cambridge: Polity Press. Beck, U. (1992) Risk Society (Trans. M. Ritter ). London: Sage Publications. Beck, U. (1994) The Reinvention of Politics: Towards a Theory of Reflexive Modernization. In U. Beck , A. Giddens , and S. Lash (eds.) Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order . Cambridge: Polity Press. Beck, U. (2000) World Risk Society . Cambridge: Polity Press. Beck, U. (2002) The Terrorist Threat. Theory, Culture and Society 19...

Critical Theory: IR's Engagement with the Frankfurt School and Marxism

Critical Theory: IR's Engagement with the Frankfurt School and Marxism   Reference library

Faruk Yalvaç

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,945 words

...system, attempting to ensure that “existing relationships and institutions work smoothly.” Unlike ahistorical problem-solving theories which serve the existing social arrangements and support the interests of the hegemonic social forces, critical theory, according to Cox, is self-reflexive, criticizes the existing system of domination, and identifies processes and forces that will create an alternative world order ( Cox 1981 :129–30). Linklater ( 2001 :25), another key critical theorist in IR, defines critical theory as a post-Marxist theory that “continues...

Nonrealist Variables: Identity and Norms in the Study of International Relations

Nonrealist Variables: Identity and Norms in the Study of International Relations   Reference library

Andrew J. Enterline

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,358 words

...( Berejikian and Dryzek 2000 :199, 209–10). Considering the implications of the international “ecology” that is by definition a phenomenon to which reflexivity is central, March and Olsen reason that “expectations, preferences, identities, and meanings are affected by human interactions and experience. They coevolve with the actions that they produce” ( 1998 :968–9). This discourse, and the resulting reflexivity, in international relations is supported by research suggesting that actors in IR interpret the actions – e.g., threats and cooperation – in terms of...

International Relations as a Social Science

International Relations as a Social Science   Reference library

Anne-Marie D’Aoust

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
15,777 words

...and thus avoided meta-considerations that would end up putting neopositivism not on an equal footing with other approaches ( Suganami 2013 :264). This false equality is significant, argues Hamati-Ataya, especially when it comes to reflexivity, which can only be limited when it comes to neopositivism. As opposed to strong reflexivity, “neopositivism can neither objectivate itself nor other forms of knowledge; Jackson's two-dimensional table flattens out the meta-epistemic level that would make this distinction visible and meaningful as a classificatory and...

Militarization and Women: Gendered Militarizations

Militarization and Women: Gendered Militarizations   Reference library

Erika Svedberg

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
6,294 words

...woman, feminist scholars in International Relations (IR) have a constructivist outlook on gender. They are driven by an unending curiosity for uncovering how gender and power are intertwined and constructed in all spheres of global politics. Feminists in IR adhere to self-reflexive, relational, and nonessentialist thinking. To describe something as having an essence is grounded in nonrelational thinking, for an essence defines what something is before all relations ( Colebrook 2004 :13). Essentializing happens when members of a group are attributed...

Networks

Networks   Reference library

Francesca Panzironi

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,903 words

...governance model) nor a market-based competitive regulation of self-interested actors ( Sørensen and Torfing 2008 :11–14). The decision-making processes within governance networks are founded on a reflexive rationality rather than the “procedural rationality” which characterizes the competitive market regulation and the “substantial rationality” which underpins authoritative state regulation ( Mayntz 1993b :13ff; Scharpf 1997 :46; Jessop 2000 :6–7). Negotiations and ongoing reflexive interactions are central to the decision-making processes of...

South Asia and Foreign Policy

South Asia and Foreign Policy   Reference library

Sumit Ganguly and Manjeet S. Pardesi

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,381 words

...India, United States and the Global Order provides a journalistic account of the complex interplay of domestic politics and foreign policy choices in India that enabled it to reach a rapprochement with the United States on the nuclear question (2006). As India shed its reflexive hostility toward the United States, it also started to pursue a policy of military-to-military cooperation with the United States. The full scope and dimensions of origins, evolution, and current state of such cooperation are explored in a series of chapters in Sumit Ganguly,...

Cosmopolitanism

Cosmopolitanism   Reference library

William Smith

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,563 words

...and practices. The idea, which echoes Diogenes, is that one refuses to be defined by a particular cultural or national identity, at least where such an identity is understood in a parochial and prescribed fashion. This way of thinking associates cosmopolitan identity with a self-reflexive or “ironic” attitude toward our cultural or national affiliations ( Turner 2002 ). The idea of global citizenship is given a rather different interpretation by Martha Nussbaum ( 1997 ). She also sees global citizenship as an aspect of personal identity, but prioritizes the...

The Public Sphere

The Public Sphere   Reference library

Benjamin Herborth and Oliver Kessler

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,560 words

...to history to discover […] And since conditions of action and of inquiry and knowledge are always changing, the experiment must always be retried; the State must always be rediscovered.” The experimental process of continuously rediscovering the state then takes the form of a self-reflexive democratic practice, in which the public reactions to unintended consequences of society formation become constitutive of a political community. Hence, the public is inextricably linked with the constitution of social and political order. The study of public spheres is thus...

Universals and Particulars in International Relations Theory

Universals and Particulars in International Relations Theory   Reference library

Fiona Robinson and Anupam Pandey

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,982 words

...of achieving this by ignoring, marginalizing, and oppressing other voices in the discourse and process of knowledge construction, feminist methods do so by inviting dissent, discussion, and diversity of methods and epistemologies. It achieves this by relying on a constant self-reflexivity which helps to make the discipline truly universalistic (that is, accommodating a multitude of voices), more accurate (because it leaves room for review and revision), and more inclusive and democratic ( Weldon 2006 ); or, in Bina D’Costa’s words, “centering the margins” (...

Governmentality and Biopolitics

Governmentality and Biopolitics   Reference library

Benjamin J. Muller

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,541 words

...constellations of the discipline: making world politics and the relationship with politics in the world. Scholars drawing on governmentality studies, in particular, stress the importance of regimes of truth and knowledge/power constellations in global politics; however, the reflexive aspects of such analysis are not easily separated from such aims. To reiterate Larner and Walters’ assertion raised earlier, governmentality research not only challenges the disciplinary lines and demarcations reified through regimes of knowledge/power, but also the extent to...

International Organizations and Economic Governance

International Organizations and Economic Governance   Reference library

Wesley W. Widmaier

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,849 words

...Best ( 2008 :362–3) argues that a persistent tendency has been for policy makers to reduce deeper forms of uncertainty to more calculable forms of risk. Best elaborates that risk “seeks to [escape] the obscurities of language through the transparency of numbers, treating the self-reflexivity of human understanding as one more variable to be factored in […] This may help to explain why governments prefer to frame problems like security, migration or finance in the language of risk and uncertainty […] and to deny their inherent ambiguity.” Such tendencies in...

Nationalism as a Social Movement

Nationalism as a Social Movement   Reference library

James Goodman

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,447 words

...which social movements can take on official forms. Certainly social movements must be autonomous of the state, but they can spawn political parties, and can engage with state structures. The key issue is that the driving dynamic of the movement remains autonomous, as a self-conscious and reflexive social force that acts on society from within society. From this perspective we may say that the nationalist movement is a special kind of social movement, in being directed at challenging, recasting, and forging the jurisdictions inhabited by movements. The introduction...

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