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self-reflexive

Subject: Literature

A term applied to literary works that openly reflect upon their own processes of artful composition. Such self‐referentiality is frequently found in modern works of fiction that repeatedly ...

self-reflexivity

self-reflexivity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
39 words

...self-reflexivity Practice advocated in the context of feminist methodology, intended to foster awareness of how one’s position as a researcher (for example, one’s race, ethnicity, gender, able-bodiedness, and class background) impacts on one’s research and the knowledge one...

reflexive modernization

reflexive modernization  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A term devised by the German social theorist Ulrich Beck, which refers to the way in which advanced modernity ‘becomes its own theme’, in the sense that ‘questions of the development and employment ...
methodology, feminist

methodology, feminist  

Reference type:
Overview Page
There have been a number of proposals that feminist social science—or social science in general, or even science in general—requires a new methodology. Some of these have been concerned with research ...
negative dialectic

negative dialectic  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A new form of dialectical thinking developed by Theodor Adorno in Negative Dialektik (1966), translated as Negative Dialectics (1973), which many regard as his magnum opus. Written with the explicit ...
self-actualization

self-actualization   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
46 words

...-actualization A theory of the hierarchy of human needs that posits a necessary progression from physiological needs to the need for security, love, status, and actualization —the self-reflexive desire to maximize one's potential. The theory of self-actualization is credited primarily to the American psychologist Abraham Maslow...

self

self   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
575 words

...societal other. The internalization of this perspective marks the complete maturation of the self. In conceiving these processes, Mead distinguished between two aspects of the self: the “I” and the “me.” The “I” is the self as the author or subject of action; the “me” is the self as the object of action, inscribed in and acted upon by the social world. The “I” is the spontaneous and creative power, while the “me” is the reflexive self—the socialized aspect of the self that situates action within a context of perceived expectations. Mead did not consider the “I”...

emic

emic  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

... and etic The term emic describes an insider's perspective on cultural practices or forms; it refers to the self-description or reflexivity possible within any culture, as well as to the conformity of such description to the categories, values, and terms of that culture. The term etic , in contrast, describes an account of practices or forms based on external criteria—the perspective of an outsider. The tension between the two is a subject of constant interest and concern to anthropologists and ethnographers—and predates the formal introduction of the...

Mead, George Herbert

Mead, George Herbert (1863–1931)   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
538 words

...two aspects of the self: the “I” and the “me.” The distinction can be conceived, in part, as separating the self as the subject of action from the self as the object of action (inscribed in and acted upon by the social world). The “I” is the spontaneous and creative power, while the “me” is the reflexive self (the socialized aspect of the self that situates action within a context of perceived expectations). Mead did not consider the “I” or “me” as discrete entities but as constantly interacting phases of the same social process of self-construction. His...

MacIntyre, Alasdair

MacIntyre, Alasdair (1929–)   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
393 words

...the Utilitarians for their attachment to universal and abstract moral imperatives, independent of tradition and/or community support; these posit the self as, at least potentially, a creation of pure rationality divorced from its own history ( see utilitarianism ). MacIntyre consistently argues against such claims and embeds the notion of rationality within tradition itself: only those traditions reflexive enough to question their own notions of truth and justice merit the claim to rationality. After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory ( 1981 ) is MacIntyre's...

discourse analysis

discourse analysis   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
362 words

...statements (scientific statements, for example) but also tended to reproduce the social order that underlay those institutions. This conception of discourse has profoundly influenced the social sciences, philosophy, and literary studies, where it has been central to the broad reflexive turn toward the construction of fields and the position of the intellectual and scholar within them. Much of this work continues to draw on the poststructuralism of Foucault and other European social...

sexuality

sexuality   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
500 words

...in The Transformation of Intimacy ( 1992 ), the separation of sexuality from reproduction and marriage, and the breakdown of traditional sexual boundaries amount to a radical democratization of intimacy. In this process, sexuality becomes an aspect of the broader reflexive project of self-fashioning. Many of these investigations deal with the question of sexual orientation—a subject that confronts most of the values that structure sexual activity: procreation, pleasure, and love. The division of sexuality into two dichotomous poles, heterosexuality and...

Bourdieu, Pierre

Bourdieu, Pierre  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...produced by interested parties. Only by reflexively making objectivity itself an object of analysis is it possible to avoid the “theoretical distortion” associated with objectivity claims—the birds-eye view that reduces all social relations to “decoding operations.” This immanent critique of the role of the sociologist, Bourdieu argues, is not a threat to the truth of social science; rather, it makes social science more scientific, capable of accounting, finally, for its constitutive blind spot—the researcher. The self-referentiality of this gesture completes...

Post-realism and Peace in World Politics

Post-realism and Peace in World Politics   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,388 words

...key factors, and the mature realist banks on self-mastery at least as much as on domination of others. Such self-control means not only meeting the demands of formal rationality but also monitoring rigorously one’s own words and actions. Post-realist self-control culminates not only in perception management but also in self-presentation so that one is perceived to be doing the right thing. It also takes account of emotion as well as reason as part of political discourse, and it strongly emphasizes the self-control of ethical conversation and action as...

Preemptive Wars

Preemptive Wars   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,658 words

...course of action is simply not an option. Webster thus narrows the circumstances that would justify preemptive warfare down to the point where it appears not as a considered choice but as reflexive action elicited by the certainty and immediacy of the threat. As Webster succinctly put it, preemptive military action is justified only when there is “a necessity of self-defense, instant, overwhelming, leaving no [other] choice of means, and no moment for deliberation” (Webster 1983 ). Understood in this way, a preemptive war initiated after careful,...

Cosmopolitanism as a Peace Theory

Cosmopolitanism as a Peace Theory   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,892 words

...the building of global community. The reconstitution of self and other that devolves from the translation process is filtered through a global discourse that includes such common modern reference points as freedom, rights, democracy, justice, and security. Although these ideas set the terms of self–other definition and evaluation, their precise meanings are matters of dispute as they touch down in specific localities, the negotiation of which becomes another site in the ongoing transformation of self, other, and the social world. At home in the dialectical...

Haas, Ernst B

Haas, Ernst B   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,137 words

...How do nations shed their penchant toward intolerance for the other? The study of integration is a step toward a theory of international change at the macro level. (Haas, “Introduction,” p. xv) This resonates with Haas’s defense of liberal nationalism, characterized by “self-reflexivity, open-endedness, and procedural thinness” that “give it a decisive edge over all other forms of nationalism” in the long run (Ruggie et al. 2005 , 292), and its transformative potential in a series of carefully selected case studies, late in his career. Yet he recognized...

Futures Methods and Peace Methods

Futures Methods and Peace Methods   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,594 words

...of quickly sorting out commonalities and differences in approaches and identifying a preferred technique. A handy tool kit of methods may be mostly what we want, but any method or combination of methods needs to be contextualized if we are to exercise sufficient critical reflexivity about technique, content, and research process, and to address crucial issues of research ethics. As researchers, we may fail to reflect sufficiently on the social and ethical implications of what we do, including whether strings may attached to research funds, as with defense...

Healing, Justice and Reconciliation of

Healing, Justice and Reconciliation of   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,813 words

...functions as a gift. To use the mercenary metaphor of accountability that is often used in framing justice, the debt incurred by the perpetrator for his or her violence is forgiven. Forgiveness, then, is much like mercy but with different connotations. In forgiveness there is a reflexive dimension: the victim who forgives becomes an actor who voluntarily gives up the right to seek redress or to seek a balancing violence in the form of punishment to be inflicted on the perpetrator. Forgiveness can occur without any interaction with the perpetrator but it does...

Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp

Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,086 words

...the camp was women-only, autonomous, and pro-woman; (2) nonviolence; (3) anti-hierarchicalism and collectivism; (4) respect for diversity and individuality; (5) personal responsibility and personal autonomy; (6) communality; (7) caring for the environment; (8) flexibility and reflexivity; (9) enjoyment and pleasure; (10) valuing the “nonrational” realm of affect, emotion, intuition, and spirituality; (11) the inseparability of means and ends (Roseneil 1995 , 60–70). Nonviolent Direct Action The public face of Greenham was its externally directed nonviolent...

Peace Research

Peace Research   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
18,125 words

...as an academic discipline, for example, is not necessarily directly related to the state, but is, like many aspects of social science, entirely the creature of the state. The state discipline is not only apparently “realist,” not historically or sociologically; it is not a self-reflexive, self-critical field. The state is everywhere, as a given, but nowhere is it analyzed. The state is all-pervasive, even if called by some other name (e.g., a polity). But like the Emperor’s clothes, its lack is yet unremarked. It is taken for granted and goes unexamined in...

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