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self-reflexive

Subject: Literature

A term applied to literary works that openly reflect upon their own processes of artful composition. Such self‐referentiality is frequently found in modern works of fiction that repeatedly ...

self-representational theories of consciousness

self-representational theories of consciousness  

A theory of consciousness will count as self‐representational if, according to it, consciousness essentially involves some sort of invariant reflexive representation, the representation, ...
self‐representational theories of consciousness

self‐representational theories of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,515 words

...self‐representationalism will hardly matter. If one is willing to accept some version of the doctrine of internal relations, which is no more and no less mysterious than the view that some things are intrinsically representational, then some version of self‐representationalism may well be a superior theory of consciousness. Some have argued, however, that the form of ubiquitous, non‐introspective self‐consciousness in question cannot be literally identified with a kind of self‐ representation (e.g. Zahavi 1999 ). They have either held that reflexive...

self, philosophical perspectives

self, philosophical perspectives   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,897 words

...and interpersonal levels of selfhood require only the sort of the non‐reflexive perceptual experience and cognitive development that is available to an infant in the first months of life; the private and extended selves, by contrast, only emerge in children of between three and five years of age who have acquired the ability to think about themselves. The latter ability is also a prerequisite of narrative selfhood: a subject must be have a fairly sophisticated level of self‐consciousness and access to its own past experiences if it is to construct...

tickling

tickling   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
986 words

...and sexual bonding, and prominent in the development of communication between mothers and babies. Tickle-induced laughter, he argued, is socially induced and results from close physical contact with another person. An alternative claim is that tickle-induced laughter is purely reflexive, something that happens without our voluntary control, similar to the reflex induced when a doctor taps your knee. An experiment carried out at the University of California recently lent some support for this theory. Christine Harris and her colleagues found that people laugh...

orgasm, scientific perspectives

orgasm, scientific perspectives   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,669 words

...scientific perspectives Orgasm is generally characterized as a peak in intensity of sexual pleasure, accompanied by reflexive phenomena such as contractions of the genitopelvic and anal muscles, whole‐body rigidity and myotonia, cardiovascular changes, hyperventilation, and release of ‘sexual tension’ ( Mah and Binik 2001 , Meston et al. 2004 ). Most studies have focused on the genitopelvic changes associated with orgasm. Neurological studies have examined peripheral and central nervous system involvement. However, how these neurophysiological...

cognitive modularity

cognitive modularity   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,336 words

...to think about or reflect upon the operation of a module. 3. Speed: modules process data in a very fast manner. 4. Shallow outputs: modules provide limited output, without information about the intervening steps that led to that output. 5. Obligatory firing: modules operate reflexively, providing predetermined outputs for predetermined inputs, regardless of the context. 6. Ontogenetic universals: modules develop in a characteristic sequence. 7. Domain specificity: modules deal exclusively with a single information type. 8. Pathological universals: modules...

correlates of consciousness, scientific perspectives

correlates of consciousness, scientific perspectives   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,595 words

.... Finally, some authors also like to draw a distinction between the contents of consciousness and the reflexive, self‐referential aspects of consciousness. People normally not only individuate particular thoughts and perceptions by their content but also in self‐referential terms; that is, as belonging to themselves. Such individuation may break down in psychiatric disorders such as *schizophrenia . Like other states of consciousness, self‐awareness might also be correlated with particular types of brain activity. Thus, consideration of different...

functionalist theories of consciousness

functionalist theories of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,760 words

...and other alleged difficulties, a variety of self‐representationist or same‐order representationist approaches are also being explored. R. Van Gulick's higher‐order global states ( HOGS ) model ( Van Gulick 2006 ), for example, may perhaps be classified as self‐representationist. The central idea is that a mental state M becomes conscious in virtue of M 's being subject to a rich set of implicit sub‐personal processes that (a) recruit M into a globally integrated complex, and (b) amount to reflexive awareness of M itself. Condition (a) is a form...

brain damage

brain damage   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,946 words
Illustration(s):
3

...patients have to show limited but clearly discernible evidence of consciousness of self or environment, on a reproducible or sustained basis, by at least one of the following behaviours: (1) following simple commands; (2) gestural or verbal yes?no response (regardless of accuracy); (3) intelligible verbalization; and (4) purposeful behaviour (including movements or affective behaviour that occur in contingent relation to relevant environment stimuli and are not due to reflexive activity). The emergence of MCS is defined by the ability to use functional...

consciousness, modern scientific study of

consciousness, modern scientific study of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
4,955 words

...to them. For the most part, developmental psychology has also focused on the ontogeny of *self‐consciousness rather than that of consciousness per se. In 1968 Amsterdam created her own facial mark test to study the development of self‐consciousness in children, finding that children are able to recognize themselves in a mirror at about 16–18 months. Continuing this line of research, Harter clocked a progression of ages at which various abilities distinctive of self‐consciousness appear: being able to use a mirror to spot objects behind one; responding...

Somatics in Sport and Performance Psychology

Somatics in Sport and Performance Psychology   Reference library

William B. Strean

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...psychology. Somatics. The term somatics comes from soma —the body in its wholeness. From a somatic perspective, the self is indistinguishable from the body. The constitutive elements of the self (emotions, actions, beliefs, interactions, perception, ethics, morals, and drive for dignity) all emerge from the physical form (e.g., Strozzi-Heckler, 2003 , 2007 ). Somatics discards the view that there is a disembodied, self-contained self that is distinct from the life of one’s body. Plainly, these notions differ dramatically from prevalent Cartesian...

Prospective Memory and Cognitive Aging

Prospective Memory and Cognitive Aging   Reference library

Simon J. Haines, Jill Talley Shelton, Julie D. Henry, Gill Terrett, Thomas Vorwerk, and Peter G. Rendell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
11,266 words
Illustration(s):
1

...suggests that multiple cognitive processes underlie successful prospective remembering (not just self-initiated ones), and these are differentially affected by the aging process. The Multiprocess Framework. The multi-process framework ( McDaniel & Einstein, 2000 , 2007 ; McDaniel, Umanath, Einstein, & Waldum, 2015 ) proposes that multiple processes are involved in PM. The default process—particularly for older adults—is to rely on relatively automatic, reflexive processes whereby cues in the environment spontaneously elicit the PM task to be performed. One...

Ever-Emerging Theories of Aging

Ever-Emerging Theories of Aging   Reference library

W. Andrew Achenbaum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
6,551 words

...relevance of archetypes, metaphors, and myths in enriching gerontological sciences. Archetypes are not the equivalents of hypotheses, yet, as elements of prototheory, they set the stage for that reflexive inquiry essential for conceptualizing emergent theories of aging. Although they cannot measure phenomena accurately, metaphors encourage a second look beyond the self-evident to patterns just beneath the surface, areas where experts often make uncanny, serendipitous discoveries. History mattered to James Birren, a fervent advocate for theory-building in gerontology...

Dynamic Integration Theory

Dynamic Integration Theory   Reference library

Manfred Diehl, Eden Griffin, and Allyson Brothers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
8,587 words
Illustration(s):
3

...emotion regulation have been proposed by other theorists such as Metcalfe and Mischel ( 1999 ) or LeDoux and Phelps ( 2000 ) . Metcalfe and Mischel ( 1999 ) , for example, proposed a hot/cool-system analysis to willpower and self-regulation. In this approach, the “hot system” refers to an impulsive, emotional, and non-reflexive way of behavior and emotion regulation, whereas the “cool system” is characterized by cognitive control and willful inhibition of behavioral impulses as exemplified by the intentional delay of gratification. Similarly, LeDoux and...

Gender and Cultural Diversity in Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Gender and Cultural Diversity in Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology   Reference library

Diane L. Gill

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...and Tiggemann ( 2011 ) looked at gender differences in teasing, body self-perceptions, and physical activity with a large sample of adolescents and concluded that teasing and body image concerns may contribute to girls’ lower rates of participation in physical activity. Physical activity also has the potential to enhance girls’ and women’s physical self-perceptions and activity. Several studies (e.g., Craft, Pfeiffer, & Pivarnik, 2003 ) confirm that exercise programs can enhance self-perceptions, and Hausenblas and Fallon’s ( 2006 ) meta-analysis found...

Multicultural Sport Psychology’s Consulting Role in the United States Activist-Athlete Movement

Multicultural Sport Psychology’s Consulting Role in the United States Activist-Athlete Movement   Reference library

Jessica L. David, Jesse A. Steinfeldt, I. S. Keino Miller, and Jacqueline E. Hyman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
8,701 words
Illustration(s):
2

...multicultural competence. One of the key principles in culturally competent counseling is that sport psychologists engage in critical self-assessment. Licensed practitioners must actively develop a “self-reflexive sensibility to raise awareness as to how one’s own values, biases, social position, and self-identity categories impact clients within consulting realms” ( Schinke et al., 2012 , p. 35). Engagement in critical self-examination is critical to determine one’s ability and willingness to support advocacy efforts, such as the activist-athlete movement. ...

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