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self-reflexive

Subject: Literature

A term applied to literary works that openly reflect upon their own processes of artful composition. Such self‐referentiality is frequently found in modern works of fiction that repeatedly ...

Silliman, Ron

Silliman, Ron (1946–)   Reference library

Jeremy Noel-Tod

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... 1978 prose poem from This Press. The book-length Tjanting (The Figures, 1981 repr. Salt, 2002) developed this mode, arranging sentences into paragraphs that expand according to the Fibonacci sequence. Silliman’s characteristic style juxtaposes quotidian observation and self-reflexive word play (‘Tmesis to me is this’). The sheer churn of his writing can seem (intentionally) undiscriminating, and the various forms in which it is cast a secondary consideration. But wit, poignancy, and precision are always to be found among its piecemeal mosaics. In 1979 ,...

Postmodernism

Postmodernism   Reference library

L. Hutcheon, M. Woodland, T. Yu, and A. Dubois

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,487 words

...that characterized postmod. (plural) poetries. II. Self-Reflexivity. Postmodernist self-reflexivity can be found in many different forms and tones: e.g., in the self-undermining narrative play of Mark Strand and James Merrill , in John Ashbery ’s “Paradoxes and Oxymorons,” and in Susan Howe ’s My Emily Dickinson , a self-conscious poetic meditation on Dickinson’s philosophical, literary, and historical contexts and their influence on Howe’s writing. Another entire dimension of the self-reflexive further complicated the postmod. challenge to modernist...

Fisher, Roy

Fisher, Roy (1930–)   Reference library

William Scammell

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of my preferred forms’, he has remarked, ‘is … imaginative self-preservation as well as … a political attitude’—i.e. a rejection of metrical closure and consensus politics. One of his constant themes is the nature of perception itself, and the role of an imperious imagination. ‘The human mind makes the world. The examination of this organism that makes the world is of paramount interest.’ In lesser poems, for example in much of The Thing About Joe Sullivan (Carcanet, 1978 ), this reflexivity seems rather cloudy and whimsical, a means of evading the...

Parody

Parody   Reference library

L. Hutcheon and M. Woodland

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,857 words

...ethos, by consistently associating them with Satan and his legions; and Chaucer’s “The Tale of Sir Thopas ” ridicules the clichés of med. verse romance. A form of what has been called intertextuality (Kristeva, Genette) or interart discourse, parody can also involve a self-reflexive ( Rose 1979 ) and critical act of reassessment and acclimatization. But there is often a tension between the potentially conservative effect of repetition and the potentially revolutionary impact of difference. These contradictory ideological implications of parody took...

Presence

Presence   Reference library

H. U. Gumbrecht

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,591 words

...level of second-order couplings. They demonstrate a different type of consensual domain, in which the interaction between systems is productive, i.e., it brings to the fore new, unprecedented states in both systems that, at a certain level of complexity, can become self-reflexive and, hence, self-descriptive. This is the reason that we always expect “language” to have a content, a meaning, semantics, a descriptive relationship to the world of which it is a part. Now, this view not only implies that meaning and rhythm are heteronomous and casts a skeptical...

National Poetry

National Poetry   Reference library

G. Jusdanis

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,193 words

...lit.: “the nation asks us that the treasure of our individual intelligence be dressed in national garments.” The mod. poet often reflects on the aesthetic and political task ahead, which makes him feel socially engaged and alienated at the same time. On the one hand, this self-reflexivity brings about a distance between artist and society, as G.W.F. Hegel well understood; but on the other, it fosters a common, public sense of purpose. Solomos manifested both tendencies. Tortured by the romantic theory of the absolute, he slaved away at various versions of...

Medieval Romance

Medieval Romance   Reference library

S.-G. Heller

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,746 words

...et Enide , composed ca. 1160–70 ), lavishly embroidered with hundreds of lines of descriptive amplificatio , the genre’s hallmark rhetorical mode ( see amplification ). Romance has been called a secondary genre, not in importance but with regard to trans. and because it is self-reflexive, often ironic, and intellectualized. Works such as the allegorical Roman de la Rose (composed ca. 1230 , continuation ca. 1270–80 ) insist on not being “fables et mensonges” (fictions and lies). Despite rhetorical downplay of invention , romances are understood as...

Modernism

Modernism   Reference library

P. Nicholls

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
4,169 words

...and formal. In the case of the first, this might register the poet’s experienced uneasiness as expatriate or as creature of the literary salon (as in Eliot’s “Portrait of a Lady” and in Pound’s Hugh Selwyn Mauberley ), or it might provide an opportunity to interrogate reflexively the nature of the aesthetic (as in Wallace Stevens’s “The Comedian as the Letter C” and Marianne Moore ’s “Poetry”). At the formal level, the “disappearance of the poet as speaker” that Stéphane Mallarmé had predicted several decades before (“Crise de vers,” 1886 , 1896 )...

Philosophy and Poetry

Philosophy and Poetry   Reference library

T. Miller

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
4,661 words

...apprehends and reiterates the original imaginative production that first took place in the poet’s mind. Modernism and the avant-garde poetries of the 20th c. called into question the formal and communicative conventions of earlier poetry and substituted for them various reflexive features of style , form , and lang. use; these postconventional poetic means were often reinforced by an implicit armature of philosophical or theoretical ideas. Philosophers, thus, often play an important role for the work of major modernist and postmodernist writers: e.g.,...

Espinela

Espinela   Reference library

D. C. Clarke

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...espinela , the espinela has been termed “the little sonnet,” and justly so since some of the most beautiful lines in Sp. poetry (e.g., in Pedro Calderón’s La vida es sueño ) have taken this form. Since the late 16th c., the espinela has been widely employed. One of the most self-reflexive instances is the Peruvian modernist Martín Adán’s La rosa de la espinela ( 1939 ), a collection of espinelas in which the rose as an emblem of transcendent vision and the stanza form are yoked in reciprocal relation. Bibliography D. C. Clarke , “Sobre la espinela,” Revista...

Spatial Form

Spatial Form   Reference library

B. Glavey

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Form . A concept describing various structures revealed when a text is apprehended as a simultaneous whole rather than as a sequence unfolding in time. Constituted by patterns of repetition and self-reflexive reference, such structures are said to contribute a sense of internal coherence and unity to literary works. The mod. use of the term originates in Frank’s influential essay “Spatial Form in Modern Literature” ( 1945 ), which argues that mod. poets and novelists such as T. S. Eliot , James Joyce , and Djuna Barnes resist temporal succession in...

Explication De Texte

Explication De Texte   Reference library

B. Norman

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...to the task of explicating the poetry of the late 19th c., esp. the highly self-reflexive work of some of the leading symbolists, whose practice tended to draw attention to the “material” and sonorous qualities of lang. In the 20th c., analysis of texts from this period led to a reconsideration of the practice of explication de texte. During the latter half of the 20th c., the two terms of the practice, explication and texte , were persistently questioned, and this self-consciousness has become a significant aspect of the reading of a work. The...

Venezuela, Poetry of

Venezuela, Poetry of   Reference library

L. M. Isava

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,705 words

...poetry; Calzadilla explored short forms ( epigrams , aphorisms) to make a resolutely urban poetry; and Cadenas created a multifarious oeuvre—beginning with existential and hallucinatory situations à la Rimbaud, and (influenced by Ramos Sucre ), he later wrote a concentrated, reflexive, almost aphoristic poetry with a philosophical slant. The subsequent group of authors is sometimes classified with the Generación de los 60, although they are usually considered a transitional group because of their attempts to undermine the tenets of that generation. This group...

Electronic Poetry

Electronic Poetry   Reference library

M. G. Kirschenbaum

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,616 words

...of new writing technologies—such as the typewriter—so too do electronic poets engage with new and emerging software tools and data formats, often bending or breaking the technology as they seek to exploit its capabilities for maximum effect while simultaneously commenting—self-reflexively—on the properties of the medium. Jim Rosenberg ’s ongoing series of experiments with diagrammatic texts (since the late 1960s) have explored a variety of electronic media and formats, incl. HyperCard, HTML, and Java. Daniel C. Howe and Aya Karpinska ’s “open.ended” (...

Genre

Genre   Reference library

M. Cavitch

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,397 words

...model, to Miller’s situational pragmatics, to Jameson’s historical materialism, to Kristeva’s intertextuality , to Nelson’s psychoanalytic reflections on genre as repetition compulsion, to Altman’s work on film genres and Holt’s on genre and popular music, to the reflexive questioning of critical genres in Stewart, Jackson, and Poovey. The diversity, sophistication, and ongoingness of such work testify to the stickiness of genre, not just as a concept that will not be shaken off but as that which provides the necessary traction for the mediation...

Sanskrit Poetics

Sanskrit Poetics   Reference library

Y. Bronner

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
5,781 words

...and replicate the entire spectrum of tropes. Bhāmaha was at pains to contain śleṣa and present it as an encapsulated form of figuration , but for Daṇḍin, it is coterminous with crooked expressivity. Indeed, Daṇḍin’s work offers a subtle but holistic framework, wherein a self-reflexive interplay exists between a host of ornamental devices that liken, intentionally confuse, or blatantly identify entities from the poem’s here and now (say, a woman’s face) and those of a figurative realm (the moon), and those that playfully question or sever the ties between...

Technology and Poetry

Technology and Poetry   Reference library

C. Noland

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,641 words

...that writing (as écriture or spacing) is the exemplary technology, the originary corruption of an immediate phusis (nature) by an artificial technē that brings nature into consciousness of itself. Without écriture, there would be no storing of experience, he reasons, no self-reflexivity and, thus, no apprehension of the difference between poiēsis and technē in the first place. Opposing Heidegger, Derrida asserts not only that speech is a variety of writing but that the subjective immediacy of lyric is made possible through the impersonal mediation of a...

Austria, Poetry of

Austria, Poetry of   Reference library

R. L. Vilain

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,154 words

...towering figure in the postwar poetic landscape, Paul Celan ( 1920–70 ), whose relationship to Austria was fatally problematized by Ger. as the lang. spoken by the perpetrators of the Holocaust. Linguistically subtle and innovative, morally uncompromising and poetologically reflexive, his works from Mohn und Gedächtnis ( 1952 ) to Die Niemandsrose ( 1963 ) and Lichtzwang ( 1970 ) are grounded in the belief that meaning finds itself only when it finds lang. Celan lived in Paris; his distinguished contemp. Ingeborg Bachmann ( 1926–73 ) settled in...

Chile, Poetry of

Chile, Poetry of   Reference library

J. Kuhnheim

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,850 words

...she also can be considered a popular poet. The 1960s and 1970s include the pre-Salvador Allende generation and those who first experienced the Pinochet dictatorship following the coup of 1973 . Figures of the 1960s include Waldo Rojas (b. 1944 ), whose work incorporates a reflexive, metapoetic intensity as he writes and rewrites his perceptions of the world. There is a continuity from his early books, such as Príncipe de naipes (Prince of Cards, 1966 ) to the later Deber de urbanidad (Urban Obligation, 2001 ), in which memory and exploration of...

Romantic and Postromantic Poetry and Poetics

Romantic and Postromantic Poetry and Poetics   Reference library

C. Brodsky

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
10,082 words

...devoted to Shakespeare ( 1811 , 1826 , 1838 , 1920 ), and the “Fragmente” ( Athenäum , 1798 ) and Dialogen ( 1798 ) of Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis; 1772–1801 ). The self-reflexivity of romantic irony is dramatized in supernatural mirrorings of the natural in stories by E.T.A. Hoffmann ( 1776–1822 ) and by the absolute absence or absolutely paralyzing presence of self-consciousness in stories and dramas by Heinrich von Kleist ( 1777–1811 ). While the romantic poetry derived from Kant and Schlegel is predominantly synchronic in conception, an...

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