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self-reflexive

Subject: Literature

A term applied to literary works that openly reflect upon their own processes of artful composition. Such self‐referentiality is frequently found in modern works of fiction that repeatedly ...

Critical Theory

Critical Theory   Reference library

Jocelyn E. Knauf, Michael P. Roller, Amanda Tang, Christopher N. Matthews, and Mark P. Leone

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,529 words

...critical archaeology are material (including objects, architecture, and landscapes) and ethnographic (including constructions such as race, class, gender, ethnicity, nation, family, etc.), fundamentally its activities are social and political. Critical archaeology pursues a self-reflexive recognition that its public activities, like all scholarly endeavor, operate as socially constituted agents with claims to authority over knowledge of the past ( Castañeda and Matthews, 2008 ). Recognition of the responsibility of this position has resulted in an effort to...

Feminist Archaeology

Feminist Archaeology   Reference library

Silvia Tomášková

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,562 words

...feminist archaeologists also explicitly addresses political commitments of their work. Feminist archaeology is a theoretical approach that strives to transform knowledge about social lives in the past, while simultaneously reshaping the discipline of archaeology. By being self-reflexive with regard to subject position and motivations, feminist archaeologists seek greater honesty about the tangled relationship between the past and the present. In this regard the feminist legacy is relevant to all archaeologists, as well as all who care about the long sweep of...

Interpretive Archaeology

Interpretive Archaeology   Reference library

John C. Barrett and Matthew H. Johnson

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,222 words

...the strengths of a self-critical awareness (the latter not paraded as a political supremacy or a final truth but expressed as an ethical awareness of archaeologists’ commitment to other human beings). Interpretive archaeology insists that there is no sphere of archaeological practice, however mundane or “technical,” that is not theory-laden or somehow outside the purview of interpretation. Ian Hodder has spoken of “interpretation at the trowel’s edge,” and developed the work of his team at the site of Çatalhöyuk as a case study in reflexive and interpretive...

Archaeological Influences in Art and Architecture

Archaeological Influences in Art and Architecture   Reference library

Ian Alden Russell

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,239 words

...play The Mound Builders in 1975 is evidence of a shift from archaeology as purely a source of inspiration toward critical artistic engagement with archaeology itself. Structures, Concepts, and Relations. Over the twentieth century, artists developed a more reflexive awareness of their practice, exploring both conceptual movements within the arts and those from other disciplines. For example, the artist Antony Gormley has consistently engaged with conceptual and theoretical understandings of the human body, which he first encountered in his...

South America, Archaeology in

South America, Archaeology in   Reference library

Tom D. Dillehay

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,270 words

...relative to each country and to Latin American history in general. In this regard, social archaeology purports to serve the nation-state and its public, as well as the profession itself. Another kind of archaeology that specifically relates to cultural patrimony is “reflexive archaeology.” Mexico and Peru best practice this type of archaeology. Since the 1990s, Peru has invested significant fiscal resources into promoting a greater understanding of its indigenous past for the purpose of building a national identity. As part of this effort, the...

Ideology and Archaeology

Ideology and Archaeology   Reference library

Jocelyn Knauf, Amanda Tang, Michael Roller, and Mark P. Leone

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,616 words

...as a critically minded political project intended to critique inequalities in the past and present and to cultivate consciousness. This choice has produced a transformation of the traditional epistemological categories of archaeological inquiry as well as its capacities for self-reflexive practice. Ideology Sources. Theoretical sources embraced by archaeology for the study of ideology vary considerably, but a consensus may have been reached on the recognition of a basic relationship between consciousness and power within hierarchical social structures. Such a...

African Biography and Historiography

African Biography and Historiography   Reference library

Heather Hughes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,136 words

...Indiana (April 21, 1980): 25. 71. Kuper, “Biography as Interpretation,” Hans Wolff Memorial Lecture, April 1980, Indiana University. 72. For a useful account of so-called positionality (albeit from a geographical perspective) see Kim V. L. England , “Getting Personal: Reflexivity, Positionality and Feminist Research,” Professional Geographer 46, no. 1 (1994): 80–89. 73. Reyher, Zulu Woman , 9. 74. McCord recorded Makhanya’s story in 1954, although the book it was based on came out in 1995, when McCord herself was in her eighties. 75. See,...

Historical Linguistics: Words and Things

Historical Linguistics: Words and Things   Reference library

Rhonda M. Gonzales

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,206 words
Illustration(s):
1

...communities ( c . 3500 bce) . 23 An added challenge for comparative historical linguistic methods has centered on the biases of both past and current researchers in framing and conducting research. Working on past times, places, and cultures with limited bias requires a reflexivity about how one’s episteme and related assumptions regarding the world must not be imbued in judgments placed on words, ideas, and things for which they have no relevance. For instance, a common meaning for a proto-Bantu root word meaning “infertile person,” *- gumba , attests in...

Anthropological and Ethnographic Methods and Sources

Anthropological and Ethnographic Methods and Sources   Reference library

Constance Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
13,021 words

...object that remains external to the observer. The discipline descends from and is still struggling with techniques of observation and control that emerged from the colonial dialectic of Western governmentality. 9 More broadly, the rise of postcolonial theory and growing reflexivity of scholarship since the 1980s has put increasing emphasis on colonialism as an ongoing struggle in which the balance of domination and resistance is constantly renegotiated. 10 With the debates of the Rhodes Must Fall campaigns as a current reminder, it is no longer...

Film and Video as Historical Sources

Film and Video as Historical Sources   Reference library

Mahir Şaul

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,777 words

...with more motorbikes than anywhere else in the world. The poor housing of the popular quarters contrasts with the wealth represented in the few and far-between massive high-rises seen from a distance. In one of the subplots, as in some other movies from Burkina Faso, cinema self-reflexively enters the story: an elder brother who supports single-handedly the extended household of the pious but unemployed senior father is a projectionist in a movie theater, while his younger brother idles away his time in the city looking for his girlfriend. These episodes are...

Oral History and Life History as Sources

Oral History and Life History as Sources   Reference library

Mary Dillard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,274 words

...oral history and life history research. Preparation is essential before beginning interviews. However, numerous scholars repeatedly acknowledge the extent to which their training and preparation only partially prepared them for the reality of the work, attention, detail, and reflexivity that are required in order to successfully complete an oral history project. Silence is a major challenge that these scholars have faced. 31 It is difficult to achieve one’s goals if interviewees will not answer the questions or will do so in such a formulaic way that their...

Animating African History: Digital and Visual Trends

Animating African History: Digital and Visual Trends   Reference library

Paula Callus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,932 words
Illustration(s):
5

...by Jacquie Trowell (one of the founders of Triggerfish). This film is a collage of reflections on freedom and race through the testimonies of different South Africans who lived through apartheid. Aimed at an adult audience, it uses a range of aesthetic devices as a vehicle to reflexively explore this history, concluding with a nationalistic optimism on the future of South African society. Within the arts, the individual that is most famously known for a critical engagement with the lived trauma of apartheid is the prominent artist William Kentridge (b. 1955 )...

Heritage and the Use of the Past in East Africa

Heritage and the Use of the Past in East Africa   Reference library

John Giblin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
14,165 words

...that took place in countries such as the United Kingdom and United States in the 1980s and 1990s, when the economic, political, and social basis and biases of national and grassroots heritage agendas began to be identified and deconstructed. 93 CHS has since encouraged a reflexive critique of the language and practice of heritage laws, policies, management, and presentation as a form of political discourse. In the EAC region, as elsewhere in the world, this has led researchers to explore how authorized and alternative constructions of heritage reflect and...

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