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salt glaze

Subject: Archaeology

A type of glaze used on stoneware. Common salt was thrown into the kiln when it reached its maximum temperature. The salt combined with silicates in the clay to produce a thin, glazed ...

Kupa Paniri

Kupa Paniri   Reference library

Yahya Shafiei Bavil Oliaei

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...sprinkled with powdered salt on all sides, up to 10 percent of cheese weight (some producers keep the cheese in brine for nearly forty days to absorb salt well). This gives the salt required for the product and also removes the excessive moisture (the moisture reaches about 60 percent). About twenty-four hours after salting the cheese blocks must be rinsed and ground to small pieces, mixed with certain amounts of salt and packed in earthen pots using a metal pestle. These are sometimes coated with a lacquer layer. The use of glazed pots is also preferred...

ham

ham   Reference library

Laura Mason

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,369 words

...and certainly imparts a delicate flavour. Alternatively, a ham can be partially simmered, then baked; or, exceptionally, baked from the start. The English method for dealing with hot boiled ham is to glaze it with brown sugar and mustard or fruit juice, and decorate by scoring the fat in a lozenge pattern and studding it with whole cloves. Sweet glazes are also popular in N. America, and fruit such as pineapple or peaches are used as a garnish. Creamy sauces flavoured with wine or mustard are favoured in continental Europe. English boiled ham to be eaten...

pili nut

pili nut   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
513 words
Illustration(s):
1

...its flavor mild and nutty. Most people know it only in the ways Bicolanos prepare it and sell it outside the region: nuts toasted, or toasted and salted, or fried, or sugar-coated or glazed; pastillas de pili; turrones de pili, mazapan de pili, suspiros de pili ; pili brittle, chocolate-covered pili candy, sugar-coated candy with sesame seeds. Bicolanos, however, also like the pulp, boiled and seasoned with salt, pepper, or patis [fish sauce], and the young shoots in salads. They also extract oil from the nut and use it for cooking. In Malaysia and...

cassoulet

cassoulet   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... category of dishes, which traditionally live on the stove through decades while subjected to daily subtractions and replenishments. It is true that long slow cooking is essential but it need not be carried to such extreme lengths. The name cassoulet comes from that of the glazed earthenware vessel in which the dish is cooked. Although it is generally agreed that the haricot beans are the most important ingredient, others being subject to variation, the earliest versions of cassoulet must have had Old World beans since the haricot bean did not arrive in...

cocido

cocido   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...of nuances that includes the salty-salt, and the salt-sweet, and the sweet-sour (which can be achieved by a tomato sauce with a hint of vinegar in it). The presence in these regions of some meat balls called ‘pilotas’ … are symbolic traces of the hard-boiled eggs in the Sephardi adafina . The cocido has emigrated with Spaniards to other Spanish-speaking countries, and has been modified in its new environments. In the Philippines, for example, it is a festive dish which may have a luxurious combination of beef, pork, salt pork, ham, chicken, and sausages, and...

Sally Lunn

Sally Lunn   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...is a complication. Eliza acton ( 1845 ) has a recipe for a ‘rich French breakfast cake’ called solimemne . This name appears in various forms, including solilem , and is thought to come from soleil et lune (sun and moon [cake]), since the product is golden on top (being glazed with egg) and pale underneath (or, say others, because it is golden outside and white inside). Dorothy Hartley ( 1954 ) ingeniously combines this derivation with the existence of the woman baker, declaring that what the latter cried ‘in her good west-country French was “Sol et...

pot cheeses

pot cheeses   Reference library

Yahya Shafiei Bavil Oliaei

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
755 words
Illustration(s):
1

...measuring about 1.5–1.9 inches (4–5 centimeters) thick, and coarse salt is sprinkled between the slices and held for two to three days. The Carra curds, along with those of another cheese called cokelek (a low-fat cheese produced from ayran), which is salted at 4 percent and contains 5 percent black cumin and 5 percent thyme, are placed as layers in earthenware jugs. Then the jugs’ openings are covered with a piece of cloth and sealed with a peculiar mixture consisting of wood ash, salt, olive oil, and water. After this mixture has been dried, the jugs are...

turnip

turnip   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...a chrysanthemum shape. In Europe, the French have devoted most care to turnips, and there are various parts of France which are famous for growing specially good ones. The French pick turnips young, in early summer, when no larger than a small orange, and braise them or fry and glaze them. They are the traditional accompaniment to certain dishes, e.g. Canard aux navets . The habit of serving plain boiled turnips, often large and old winter specimens, seems to have been characteristic of English-speaking countries. Turnip tops, like other brassica greens, are...

cheese accompaniments

cheese accompaniments   Reference library

Mary Karlin

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,037 words

...pollen, lavender); dried herb blends (herbs de Provence, fine herbs, za’tar) • Spices: Peppercorns, mustard seeds; sweet, smoked, and hot paprika • Nuts and seeds: Nuts (walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, pecans; sprouted, toasted, salted, candied, spiced, butters); seeds (pumpkin, sunflower; sprouted, toasted, salted, candied, spiced, butters) • Oils: Olive oil (plain extra-virgin, or flavored [citrus, smoked, truffle]); seed and nut oils (pumpkin, sunflower, sesame, pistachio, walnut, hazelnut) • Vinegars: Aged wine vinegar (balsamic), Saba, fruit...

Japanese culinary terms

Japanese culinary terms   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,847 words

...and a half well-known ones, with various flavours provided by other Japanese ingredients. Teriyaki , a term which refers to a special glaze applied to fish, meat, or fowl in the final stages of grilling or pan-frying. This glaze is sweet and is based on a trio of favourite Japanese ingredients: soy sauce , saké , and mirin . Teri means gloss and yaki (as in yakimono (below)) refers to grilling or pan-frying. The glaze is called teriyaki sauce and may be bought in a commercially prepared form or made at home. Tsukemono , the Japanese term for ...

state desserts

state desserts   Reference library

Emily Matchar

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the United States. See united states . Far fewer cakes than pies appear on the list of official desserts. Despite its name, Massachusetts’s state dessert of Boston cream pie is actually a cake comprising sponge layers filled with vanilla custard and topped with a chocolate glaze. See boston cream pie . The Boston cream doughnut, essentially a miniature version of the pie, is the state doughnut. Even though it is also called a pie, Maine’s state treat, the whoopie pie, is actually a cake-cookie hybrid consisting of two individual-sized cake rounds filled...

apricot

apricot   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,199 words

... fruit pastes, cheeses, butters ). Meebos is an unusual S. African conserve. Ripe but firm apricots are brined, then stoned and pressed flat, salted, and part dried in the sun over several days. The resultant sheets are stored in jars with layers of sugar between them and on top, and will keep for months. In China, from at least the 7th century ad onwards, apricots were preserved not only by drying, but also by salting and even smoking. The black smoked apricots of Hupei were famous, and apricots in general were greatly esteemed as a food, being considered...

France

France   Reference library

Anne Willan

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
4,460 words
Illustration(s):
1

...; and truffles . Almost unique to dinner-table offerings are fruits glacés, fresh fruits glazed with caramel, a treat that dissolves all too quickly in moist air. Cherries are favorites, with their protective skin and stems ready-made for dipping in the scalding sugar syrup; grapes are good, too. Strawberries can be glazed, but the caramel is fragile on the juicy fruit, making melted chocolate a better alternative. Candied fruits, whole fruits preserved and glazed in baths of sugar syrup, have been sidelined in recent times. See candied fruit . However,...

Portugal

Portugal   Reference library

Frances Baca

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,820 words

...was created by the nuns of Aveiro, in the northern Beira Litoral province. Originally consisting of only egg yolks, sugar, and water, a modern variation substitutes rice flour for some of the yolks. Soft and spreadable, ovos moles is an extremely adaptable dessert: it can be glazed between layers of pastry, drizzled over fruit or puddings, or squirted into fanciful maritime-themed rice paper casings and popped directly into one’s mouth. In Aveiro, ovos moles is also sold in small wooden barrels (some only big enough to fit a spoon) that are colorfully...

gelatin desserts

gelatin desserts   Reference library

Susan M. Rossi-Wilcox

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,020 words
Illustration(s):
1

...powder with water and chill it to set. This circa 1910 advertisement from the Genesee Pure Food Company was accompanied by recipes for each dessert. At the time, Jell-O came in seven flavors and cost 10 cents a package. Eighteenth-century wooden molds were replaced by salt-glazed pottery and, later, by creamware manufactured by Spode, Wedgwood, and other firms. Fruits, such as carved melons or citrus rinds, have also served as molds to highlight the fruit used. When decorating a mold, a thin layer of the clear gelatin should first be poured into the...

Persia

Persia   Reference library

Charles Perry

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,563 words

...glazed. There are a number of cookie-like pastries, such as the rice-based ke’k-e yazdi . The most elaborate specialty is pashmak (wool), which looks like cotton candy but is made by a technique similar to Chinese pulled noodles. Soft hot candy is stretched and folded repeatedly until it turns into a mass of threads. This mountainous country has an ancient tradition of harvesting ice in winter and storing it in underground ice houses called yakhchāls to chill fruits and puddings. When the technique of producing subfreezing temperatures by adding salt was...

bread

bread   Reference library

Tom Jaine

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
7,773 words

..., the crumb of a white loaf, ‘pulled’ apart into chunks and dried in the oven. Salt stick (German: Salzstange ), thin, crisp, usually leavened bread stick covered in salt, used as a snack. They are made in several countries, especially in C. Europe, where they are often sold with beer in beer halls, since they stimulate thirst. Stotty cake , not a cake but a flat round loaf which is a speciality of NE England (e.g. Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne). Vienna , British term for a glazed, bright golden, crusty white loaf cooked with the aid of steam in the oven to...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
234,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of the stria terminalis in humans may extend into adulthood . Journal Neuroscience , 22(3):1027–1033. Church News . 1978 (December 16, Vol. 6). Salt Lake City, UT: Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints Publication. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. 1989. Pearl of great price . Salt Lake City, UT: Author. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. 1990. For the strength of youth . Salt Lake City, UT: Author. CIA. 2002 (January). The world factbook 2002 . Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. Available: ...

Ceramics

Ceramics   Reference library

Cathy K. Kaufman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...elegant dinner sets. Majolica is nineteenth-century whimsical lead-glazed earthenware, frequently molded in floral, vegetal, or animal motifs and glazed to mimic nature's colorings. Stoneware is fashioned from clay with fewer impurities, permitting a higher firing temperature (2192°F–2372°F), which encourages vitrification. The pieces are nonporous and stronger than earthenware, but not as sturdy as porcelain. Rhenish stoneware was used in the colonies by 1650 (distinct from the salt-glazed stoneware manufactured in England); Huguenot immigrants started...

stein

stein   Reference library

Horst Dornbusch

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...which ended the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, brought about decades of peace and prosperity, during which more and more pub patrons could afford their own, private beer mugs. These were usually made of superior, high-temperature kilned “stoneware” instead of earthenware, and glazed with salt for a smooth finish. Finer examples were intricately decorated. Beer gardens shaded by chestnut or linden trees became fashionable in the mid-19th century, which led to the development of the tin-lidded stein for keeping insects and leaves out of beer. See beer gardens ....

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