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saṃpradāya

Subject: Religion

A term for an institutionalized order or tradition (usually smārta in nature), marked by a guru-pupil lineage or paramparā. This may be traced back to an historical or mythical founder, or ...

Saṃpradāya

Saṃpradāya   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
73 words

... (Skt., from saṃ-pra da , ‘to give completely up’, ‘to hand down by tradition’). In Indian religions, any established doctrine and set of practices transmitted from one teacher to another. From this it has come to mean any sectarian religious teaching or a religious sect. In the Mahābhārata ( Anuśāsanaparvan 141), the four (supposedly) original saṃpradāyas are listed more as styles of increasing asceticism through which tapas is generated. For Jains, see MULA SANGHA...

sampradāya

sampradāya   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
66 words

... (‘ order ’, ‘ tradition ’, ‘ sect ’) A term for an institutionalized order or tradition (usually smārta in nature), marked by a guru-pupil lineage or paramparā . This may be traced back to an historical or mythical founder, or even to God (however identified). Entry requires a special initiation ( dīkṣā ), which, depending on the tradition, may be given to renouncers only, or to householders as well...

Mahānubhāva Saṃpradāya

Mahānubhāva Saṃpradāya   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
150 words

...Saṃpradāya ( Mānbhāvs, Manbhaus ) (‘ those who have a great experience ’) An anti- Vedic and antinomian Kṛṣṇa - bhakti tradition, founded by Cakradhar in 13th-century Maharashtra. By the end of the following century, the tradition had separated into thirteen ‘currents’ ( āmnāyas ), and isolated itself from the surrounding Hindu culture of caste and svadharma , partially by preserving its extensive Marathi literature—much of it hagiographical material about Cakradhar and his successors—in a secret code until the 20th century. Mahānubhāvas...

Sangeeta Sampradāya Pradarśini

Sangeeta Sampradāya Pradarśini  

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Music

...Sampradāya Pradarśini A Telugu work ( 1904 ) on music and musicians by Subbarāma Dīkshitar . The work, in two volumes, was printed in Ettayapuram, Tamil Nadu. Pradarśini has five main sections: 1. Seventy-seven biographies of luminaries beginning from Śārangadeva (13th cent.) to the author himself. 2. A discussion of scientific principles governing music, brought under two titles ‘Sangeeta Lakṣhaṇa Prācheena Paddhati’ and ‘Sangeeta Lakṣhaṇa Sangraha’. 3. A scholarly treatment of rāgas with their moorchanās. Rāgas covered include rare ones like...

Aughara

Aughara   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11 words

...One of the panths (‘paths’) of the Nāth Siddha sampradāya...

Jayadeva Pakṣadhara

Jayadeva Pakṣadhara   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17 words

...Pakṣadhara (15th century ce ) The founder of a Navya Nyāya sampradāya in the tradition of Gaṅgeśa...

Vindhyavāsin

Vindhyavāsin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17 words

...( c. 4th century ce ) The founder of a Sāṃkhya sampradāya which may have influenced Patañjali 's Yoga ...

svatantra

svatantra   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
29 words

... (‘ independent ’, ‘ having one's own school ’) An adjective describing self-appointed, or self-initiated renouncers and sādhus —i.e. those who have not formally joined a sampradāya or ascetic ...

Ganesh Chaturvedi

Ganesh Chaturvedi (b. ?, 1864)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
41 words

...Chaturvedi ( b. ?, 1864 ; d. Mathura , 1939 ) Mridang and tabla player of Mathura, Uttar Pradesh . He belonged to the Vallabh sampradāya and accompanied vocalists who performed Aṣhṭachhāp devotional music. He was a regular accompanist of the well-known vocalist Chandan Chaube...

Muthukkumara Pulavar

Muthukkumara Pulavar  

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Music

...Pulavar ( b. ?; d. ?) Tamil composer (19th cent.) . His name appears in Sangeeta Sampradāya Pradarśini ( 1904 ) of Subbarama Dīkshitar as the writer of a varṇam, ‘Viragamum …’ for which Balaswami Dīkshitar gave music. It is in Vamśavati rāga, Ādi...

Śrīpati

Śrīpati   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
36 words

...(14th century ce , or earlier) The founder of a Śaiva Vedānta samprādaya . A Liṅgāyata , in his Śrīkarabhāṣya he draws on Rāmānuja 's Viśiṣṭādvaita , adopting an essentially bhedābheda stance, characterized as Śaktiviśiṣṭādvaita (Śaktiviśeṣādvaita), ‘non-dualism qualified by Śakti...

Baladeva

Baladeva   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
37 words

...1 See Balarāma . 2 (18th century ce ) The founder of a Vedānta sampradāya . His Govindabhāṣya belongs to the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava tradition; it characterizes the relationship between the devotee and Kṛṣṇa as acintya-bhedābheda (‘inconceivable difference in...

Nimbārkī

Nimbārkī   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
146 words

... ( Nimāvat ) A member of the Nimbārka or Sanakādi sampradāya , a Vaiṣṇava bhakti tradition claiming the Dvaitādvaitin , Nimbārka as its founder. The early history of the sampradāya is not clear, but it appears to have been revived by the twenty-ninth ācārya , Keśava Kāśmirī Bhaṭṭa ( b. 1479 ), who established Braj as an important centre for the Nimbarkīs. Succeeding ācāryas developed a theology focused on devotion to Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā as the male and female aspects of the supreme reality ( brahman (neut.) ), the devotee taking the part of...

Kaḍigai Mookku Pulavar

Kaḍigai Mookku Pulavar  

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Music

... Composer (19th cent.) and Tamil scholar who served the Ettayapuram ruler of his time . His padams ‘Indapperumai’ (Mālavaśri rāga, Miśra jāti Ekatāla) and ‘Ādiyāramba kalviyé’ (set to music by Baluswami Dikshitar ) have been included in Subbarama Dikshitar 's volume Sangeeta Sampradāya Pradarśini...

Saraswati Manōhari Rāga

Saraswati Manōhari Rāga  

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Music of India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Music

...Manōhari Rāga (Kar) Tyāgarāja brought this rāga to light. Sambamoorthy presents the following: According to Sambamoorthy, Subbarama Dīkshitar in his Sangeeta Sampradāya Pradarśini assigns this rāga to the 29th Mela, (Dheera) Śankarābharaṇam, with the scale given below: Sambamoorthy adds that Muthuswāmi Dīkshitar 's kriti quoted above conforms to Subbarama Dīkshitar 's...

Puruṣottamācārya

Puruṣottamācārya   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
45 words

...(13th century ce ?) Named as an early ācārya in the Nimbārka sampradāya , although the lineage is historically unreliable. The Vedāntaratnamañjuṣa is attributed to him, as is a ‘biography’ of Nimbārka, the Ācāryacarita ; the latter, however, cannot be dated to earlier than the 16th...

Sant tradition

Sant tradition   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
173 words

...Maharaṣṭra. But more usually the Sant tradition refers to a succession of religious teachers and devotees in N. India whose influence was extensive from the 15th to 17th cents., and persists to the present day. The Sant tradition also refers to itself as Nirguṇa Saṃpradāya ( see NIRGUṆA ; SAṀPRADĀYA ), or Nirguṇa Pantha. This Sant tradition was a coalescence of different religious strands, of which Vaiṣṇava bhakti, especially as associated with Ramananda , was particularly important. Major figures among the Sants include Nāmdev , Ravi Dās , and Kabīr...

Haridāsa, Svāmī

Haridāsa, Svāmī   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
169 words

...number of sites in Vṛndāvana , which has remained the base for his followers, the Haridāsīs, until the present day. Their alternative name, the Sakhī sampradāya (or Sakhibhāvas ), reflects the way in which Haridāsa assumed the role of a female attendant or close girl-friend ( sakhī ) of Rādhā in his Braj bhāṣā devotional poetry, notably in the Kelimāl (‘Garland of Divine Love Play’). Beyond the sampradāya (which is composed of ascetic and householder branches, following a 17th-century split), Haridāsa is renowned in North India as a singer and...

Rādhavallabhī

Rādhavallabhī   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
149 words

... (‘ Those who regard Kṛṣṇa as the lover of Rādhā ’, or ‘Rādhā's Lovers ’) A North Indian Vaiṣṇaiva bhakti sampradāya , founded by Hitaharivaṃśa when he consecrated an image of Kṛṣṇa called Rādhavallabha (‘Lover of Rādhā ’) at Vṛndāvana in 1535 , and continued, after his death, by his son Kṛṣṇadāsa . The sampradāya was dedicated to the worship of Rādhā through an attitude of sakhya-bhakti, in which the devotee assumed the role of a female attendant or close girl-friend ( sakhī ) of Rādhā, the better to contemplate the eternal union...

Vallabhasampradāya

Vallabhasampradāya   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
133 words

...on the grace (puṣṭi) of Kṛṣṇa —especially of Kṛṣṇa as Śrī Nāthjī, his svarūpa (‘own form’) installed at Nāthdvāra in Rajasthan. The sampradāya was developed by Vallabha's second son, Viṭṭalanātha, who assigned a further Kṛṣṇa image to each of his seven sons, to be installed in separate North or West Indian temples . In this way he established, through his male line, a householder guru lineage for the sampradāya. Viṭṭalanātha is also credited with establishing a liturgy composed of the kīrtanas of eight bhakti poets (aṣṭachāp(a) for use during...

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