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Overview

saṃpradāya

Subject: Religion

A term for an institutionalized order or tradition (usually smārta in nature), marked by a guru-pupil lineage or paramparā. This may be traced back to an historical or mythical founder, or ...

World Religions

World Religions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
17,113 words
Illustration(s):
7

...allowed multiple religious identities, it never developed a concept of conversion and exclusive identity. Because Hindus had been severely criticized by both Christian missionaries and British administrators for their bad treatment of women, many Hindu religious lineages ( sampradāya s) and sects were turning leadership over to female gurus such as Sarada Devi , Mirra Alfassa , “The Mother,” Daya Mata , Godavari Mataji , Gayatri Devi , Mathru Srisarada , Asha Ma , Gurumayi Chidvilasananda , and Mate Mahadevi . Many of these women taught in the...

Hinduism

Hinduism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,741 words
Illustration(s):
1

...drew upon its teachings to justify armed opposition to the British, while Gandhi insisted on an allegorical reading that turned the Gita into a manual of nonviolence. While a contemporary Vaishnava theologian such as Srila Prabhupada ( 1896–1977 ) of the Caitanya-sampradaya, the founder of the Hare Krishna movement, views the Gita as the supreme embodiment of the idea of bhakti (devotion), others such as Gandhi and Tilak have seen the Gita as a call to action (karma yoga). The first half of the twentieth century can also be described as a...

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