Update

You are looking at 1-20 of 84 entries  for:

  • All: perspectivism x
  • Type: Subject Reference x
clear all

View:

Overview

perspectivism

See also epistemology; Thomas theorem. 1. Broadly, the stance that the truth of any knowledge or fact is tied to a particular frame of ...

perspectivism

perspectivism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
88 words

... See also Thomas theorem ; compare objectivism . 1. Broadly, the stance that the truth of any knowledge or fact is tied to a particular frame of reference (McGuire); see also epistemology . 2. (philosophy) A relativist and anti-objectivist theory (particularly associated with Nietzsche) that there can be radically different views of reality which are incommensurable : see also translatability . The Sapir–Whorf hypothesis is a form of perspectivism; the categorization systems of each language represent different...

perspectivism

perspectivism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
80 words

... ( perspectivalism ) The view that all truth is truth from or within a particular perspective. The perspective may be a general human point of view, set by such things as the nature of our sensory apparatus, or it may be thought to be bound by culture, history, language, class, or gender. Since there may be many perspectives, there are also different families of truths. The term is frequently applied to Nietzsche ’s philosophy. See also relativism , scepticism...

cosmological perspectivism

cosmological perspectivism ([Th])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
106 words

...perspectivism [Th] A kind of animism developed by Viveiros de Castro on the basis of studying Amerindian cosmologies in which all beings occupy a referential point of view that makes all other beings like them in physical form, with common emotional, sensory, and symbolic understandings. In this sense humans and non-humans are believed to have a soul, and thus to have a point of view or ‘perspective’. While the life of non-humans is governed by the same values as humans, what may be different is the actual things that non-humans perceive and the...

skyscape archaeology

skyscape archaeology ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
91 words

...common in archaeoastronomy , focusing instead on the sociocultural contexts in which elements of particular skyscapes were made meaningful to past communities. Skyscape archaeology draws on a range of theoretical and interpretative tools, including phenomenology and perspectivism...

ontological turn

ontological turn ([Th])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
125 words

...turn [Th] A new way of thinking (or turn) in anthropology and archaeology that developed around 2010 through the work of Philippe Descola, Eduardo Viveiros de Castro, and Bruno Latour, amongst others. A kind of perspectivism, it focuses on understanding differences in cultural phenomena not as different interpretations of a singular world but rather as alternative realities and other ways of being that exist in parallel with our own. Thus, rather than trying to use modern perspectives to understand other cultures (whether past or present), it...

animism

animism ([Th])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
110 words

...may be found. One of the four main ontological perspectives identified by Philippe Descola in his ontological grid; the opposite of naturalism . In archaeology the idea of animism is sometimes use to build ontologies of past communities, often through cosmological perspectivism...

Schacht, Richard

Schacht, Richard   Reference library

Stephen Priest

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
122 words

...of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Schacht's writings make room for some understanding between philosophers writing in the ‘analytical’ tradition and so-called ‘modern continental philosophy’. Notably, Nietzsche ( 1983 ) presents arguments for and against that philosopher's perspectivism and repudiation of Western morality in an idiom that is not Nietzschean but which preserves many of Nietzsche's insights. In Alienation ( 1971 ), Hegel and After: Studies in Continental Philosophy between Kant and Sartre ( 1975 ), and Classical Modern Philosophers:...

Thomas theorem

Thomas theorem   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
134 words

... is what Merton came to call a self-fulfilling prophecy (as in cases of ‘mind over matter’). It is at the heart of symbolic interactionism. See also constitutive models ; constructionism ; context of situation ; contextual meaning ; frame of reference ; framing ; perspectivism ; situational knowledge . ...

Sosa, Ernest

Sosa, Ernest   Reference library

John Heil

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
151 words

...Ernest ( 1940–  ). Romeo Elton Professor of Natural Theology at Brown University, recognized for contributions in epistemology, metaphysics, and the philosophy of mind. Sosa is best known for ‘virtue perspectivism’, an attempt to reconcile traditional ‘coherentist’ and ‘foundationalist’ epistemological concerns. On this view, whether a belief constitutes knowledge depends both on how it was produced and on the believer's perspective on his own situation as knower. To be candidates for knowledge, beliefs must be products of truth-conducive intellectual...

Protagoras of Abdera

Protagoras of Abdera (c.490–420)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
187 words

...precise meaning is debatable, for unless it leads to subjective idealism , as in Berkeley , it seems to leave the one object possessing contradictory properties, if one person takes it one way and another takes it in a contradictory way ( see peritrope , but see also perspectivism ). It seems clear that while Protagoras believed that each person’s sense perceptions are true (for their owner), he also believed that moral and political doctrines, to which his relativism might seem especially well-adapted, are capable of improvement and can be taught. It...

objectivism

objectivism ((philosophy))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
153 words

..., and linguistic frameworks mediate human experience and reality ( see also Sapir–Whorf hypothesis ). This raises the question of whether social research can ever be ‘scientific’; for its critics, this condemns such research to epistemological relativism . Compare perspectivism . ...

Sapir–Whorf hypothesis

Sapir–Whorf hypothesis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
173 words

...see the world may be influenced by (as well as reflected in) the kind of language in which we conventionally frame experiences ( see also emotive conjugation ; exnomination ; labelling theory ; loaded language ; markedness ). See also metaphor ; mould theory ; perspectivism . http://visual-memory.co.uk/daniel/Documents/short/whorf.html The Sapir–Whorf hypothesis ...

relativism

relativism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
263 words

...One characterization is the stance that there are numerous alternative versions of reality which can only be assessed in relation to each other and not in relation to any absolute, fixed, and universal truth , reality , meaning , knowledge , or certainty ( see also perspectivism ). Such categories are contingent —temporary, provisional, and dependent on context and circumstances. Relativism is an anti-essentialist position. The defence of absolutes is denounced as metaphysics . There can be no value-free facts. Critics often object to what...

post-truth

post-truth   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
229 words

...just as good as your knowledge’. This is a form of radical relativism indifferent to any distinction between fact and fiction —a stance ironically reminiscent of the intellectual excesses of postmodernism (though lacking its characteristic reflexivity ); see also perspectivism . The post-truth politics that followed the financial crisis of 2008 is closely associated with a distrust of ‘experts’, science, political elites, and the mainstream media. Some have seen it as nourished by an echo chamber effect in social media —which could in turn...

Ortega y Gasset, José

Ortega y Gasset, José (1883–1955)   Quick reference

Who's Who in the Twentieth Century

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History
Length:
254 words

...the rise of Franco, however, Ortega chose exile in Argentina and Portugal. When he finally returned to Spain in 1946 he founded in Madrid the Institute of Humanities, where he taught and wrote for the last years of his life. Philosophically Ortega argued for what he called ‘perspectivism’. The world, he insisted, can be known only from a specific point of view. He consequently took as the fundamental feature of his theory of knowledge not mind or matter but ‘perspective’. All perspectives were equally valid. The only indubitably false perspective was that...

translatability

translatability   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
303 words

...and that whatever we say in one language can always be translated into another. For linguistic relativists translation between one language and another is at the very least, problematic, and sometimes impossible ( see also incommensurability ; indeterminacy ; perspectivism ). Some commentators also apply this to the ‘translation’ of unverbalized thought into language. Even within a single language, some suggest that any reformulation of words has implications for meaning , however subtle: it is impossible to say exactly the same thing in...

reality

reality   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
346 words

... differentiate differently ( see also categorization ; linguistic relativism ; Sapir–Whorf hypothesis ). However objective we may try to be, our experience of reality is unavoidably subjective —dependent on a point of view . See also objectivism ; compare perspectivism . 2. ( external reality, material reality, physical reality ) The perceptible world (including the body ) that we routinely experience as directly, immediately, unmediatedly ‘given’ by sensory data (rather than as cognitively mediated by inference ). We may acknowledge...

fake news

fake news   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
329 words

...history’, despite photographic evidence indicating otherwise. Chuck Todd, an NBC News journalist, responded: ‘Alternative facts are not facts . They are falsehoods’. See also assimilation ; confirmation bias ; liberal media ; echo chamber ; post-truth ; perspectivism ; relativism . 3. Spoof news items devised for satirical or comedic purposes (as in The Onion website). ...

Chamier, George

Chamier, George   Reference library

Nelson Wattie

The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
519 words

...life on individuals with a degree of ironic detachment, yet with a wealth of significant detail. Written thirty years after the events they describe, they also have historical perspective. Because of a certain wordiness and perhaps the demanding complexities of the multi-perspectivism, Chamier's books have never won more than ambiguous praise. They are rewarding for all that. Nelson...

postmodernism

postmodernism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
462 words

... aspects it includes a denial of any fixed meaning, or any correspondence between language and the world, or any fixed reality or truth or fact to be the object of enquiry. The tendency was anticipated, and perhaps most brilliantly expressed, by Nietzsche , whose perspectivism is seen as a philosophical technique for dissolving the presumption that there can be objective knowledge. Objectivity is revealed as a disguise for power or authority in the academy, and often as the last fortress of white male privilege. Logical or rational thought is...

View: