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perspectivism

See also epistemology; Thomas theorem. 1. Broadly, the stance that the truth of any knowledge or fact is tied to a particular frame of ...

Ibn al-Ḥaytham

Ibn al-Ḥaytham   Reference library

Nader El-Bizri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
4,990 words

...through natural philosophy, common sense, or a simple procedure of abstraction. Ibn al-Ḥaytham anticipated in this the seventeenth-century conceptions of extensio by Descartes, and Leibniz’s analysis situs , in addition to Girard Desargues’s reflections on spatiality in perspectivism and projective geometry. Ibn al-Ḥaytham’s definition of al-makān (place) attracted a bold critique (albeit unsuccessful) in defense of Aristotle’s physical definition of topos , by the thirteenth-century natural philosopher ʿAbd al-Laṭīf al-Baghdādī (d. c. 1231 ce ), in...

transcranial magnetic stimulation

transcranial magnetic stimulation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,565 words
Illustration(s):
4

...magnetic stimulation There are many ways of attempting to capture the scientific essence of consciousness. One can record brain activity that correlates with states of awareness ( see correlates of consciousness, scientific perspectivs ; electroencephalography ), study patients who have lost aspects of awareness ( see blindsight ), or manipulate awareness by using psychological techniques ( see change blindness ). One can also directly interfere with states of awareness by stimulating neurologically intact brains. This is achieved by ...

Daoism

Daoism   Reference library

James D. SELLMANN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,087 words

...live in harmony with others and the natural environment. Zhuangzi develops Daoist environmental philosophy. Some scholars postulate that Zhuangzi may have been the warden of a forest reserve; he certainly was familiar with local flora and fauna. Zhuangzi advocates a type of perspectivism: He states that each creature is limited in its understanding by the perspective from which it experiences the world. He gives numerous examples of how different creatures find different habitats and foods pleasing. He maintains that there is no single correct or privileged...

A Historical View on Attitudes and Persuasion

A Historical View on Attitudes and Persuasion   Reference library

Pablo Briñol, Richard E. Petty, and Joshua J. Guyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
13,957 words

...the modification and distortion of judgments. In H. Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups, leadership, and men (pp. 177–190). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Press. Banaji, M. R. (2004). The opposite of a great truth is also true. In J. T. Jost , M. R. Banaji , & D. A. Prentice (Eds.), Perspectivism in social psychology: The yin and yang of scientific progress (pp. 127–140). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Bargh, J. A. (1999). The cognitive monster: The case against the controllability of automatic stereotype effects. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds...

The History of Psychology in Brazil

The History of Psychology in Brazil   Reference library

Regina Helena de Freitas Campos

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of Modern Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, History
Length:
14,256 words

...her role had always been prescribed. This role was inscribed in the village structure itself, where the localization of the habitations and the rules for inhabiting them determined the social roles and the villagers’ vision of the world. This vision, generically denominated “perspectivism” in anthropology ( Viveiros de Castro, 2002 ), sees the world as inhabited by different species of subjects (human and nonhuman), which apprehend it from different points of view. In this mosaic of perspectives, both humans and animals can look upon one another as people,...

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