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perspectivism

See also epistemology; Thomas theorem. 1. Broadly, the stance that the truth of any knowledge or fact is tied to a particular frame of ...

perspectivism

perspectivism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
80 words

... ( perspectivalism ) The view that all truth is truth from or within a particular perspective. The perspective may be a general human point of view, set by such things as the nature of our sensory apparatus, or it may be thought to be bound by culture, history, language, class, or gender. Since there may be many perspectives, there are also different families of truths. The term is frequently applied to Nietzsche ’s philosophy. See also relativism , scepticism...

Schacht, Richard

Schacht, Richard   Reference library

Stephen Priest

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
122 words

...of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Schacht's writings make room for some understanding between philosophers writing in the ‘analytical’ tradition and so-called ‘modern continental philosophy’. Notably, Nietzsche ( 1983 ) presents arguments for and against that philosopher's perspectivism and repudiation of Western morality in an idiom that is not Nietzschean but which preserves many of Nietzsche's insights. In Alienation ( 1971 ), Hegel and After: Studies in Continental Philosophy between Kant and Sartre ( 1975 ), and Classical Modern Philosophers:...

Sosa, Ernest

Sosa, Ernest   Reference library

John Heil

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
151 words

...Ernest ( 1940–  ). Romeo Elton Professor of Natural Theology at Brown University, recognized for contributions in epistemology, metaphysics, and the philosophy of mind. Sosa is best known for ‘virtue perspectivism’, an attempt to reconcile traditional ‘coherentist’ and ‘foundationalist’ epistemological concerns. On this view, whether a belief constitutes knowledge depends both on how it was produced and on the believer's perspective on his own situation as knower. To be candidates for knowledge, beliefs must be products of truth-conducive intellectual...

Protagoras of Abdera

Protagoras of Abdera (c.490–420)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
187 words

...precise meaning is debatable, for unless it leads to subjective idealism , as in Berkeley , it seems to leave the one object possessing contradictory properties, if one person takes it one way and another takes it in a contradictory way ( see peritrope , but see also perspectivism ). It seems clear that while Protagoras believed that each person’s sense perceptions are true (for their owner), he also believed that moral and political doctrines, to which his relativism might seem especially well-adapted, are capable of improvement and can be taught. It...

postmodernism

postmodernism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
462 words

... aspects it includes a denial of any fixed meaning, or any correspondence between language and the world, or any fixed reality or truth or fact to be the object of enquiry. The tendency was anticipated, and perhaps most brilliantly expressed, by Nietzsche , whose perspectivism is seen as a philosophical technique for dissolving the presumption that there can be objective knowledge. Objectivity is revealed as a disguise for power or authority in the academy, and often as the last fortress of white male privilege. Logical or rational thought is...

relativism

relativism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
470 words

...each other in the way that a speaker saying ‘it is not raining here’ is talking past someone who said ‘it is raining here’, if they are located in different places. Much postmodernist thought may be regarded as a somewhat abandoned celebration of relativism. See also perspectivism...

McGilvary, Evander Bradley

McGilvary, Evander Bradley (1864–1953)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,806 words

...perspective. In the visual case, an array of “objects sensibly perceived by an observer from any one of the positions his eyes may occupy is his perspective from that position, and any object in that field is ‘in that perspective’” (1956, p. 156). In 1907 , before adopting perspectivism as his central philosophical tenet, McGilvary published his first major work, “Pure Experience and Reality,” in which he alleged a “crisis” in John Dewey ’s system. In particular, he alleged that at the very least Dewey was “anti-realist” and, perhaps, even an idealist. ...

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
949 words

...of interpretations and of the fragmented self; as well as the downgrading of reason and the politicization of discourse. All awaited rediscovery in the late 20th century. Nietzsche also has the incomparable advantage over his followers of being a wonderful stylist, and his perspectivism is echoed in the shifting array of literary devices—humour, irony, exaggeration, aphorisms, verse, dialogue, parody—with which he explores human life and history. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~fnchron/index.html A chronology of Nietzsche’s life and works...

Bell, Daniel

Bell, Daniel (1919–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,707 words

...presentation of them, or their implications. Philosophy appears, from Bell's own perspective – as it did from Êmile Durkheim's – as a kind of supernumerary practice, with which sociology need not be overly concerned. Epistemologically, Bell espouses a form of post-Kantian perspectivism that is indebted to John Dewey , and quite similar to recent forms of pragmatism. On Bell's view, society cannot be known as an object in itself; it is best understood from a particular perspective that emphasizes those elements that are useful to the knower. Thus, the...

histories of moral philosophy

histories of moral philosophy   Reference library

Alasdair MacIntyre

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,006 words

...suppose themselves to be emancipated from religious morality are merely victims of a new set of delusions, among them not only those of the moral philosophies of Kant and the Utilitarians, but also belief in the ideal of objectivity prized by academic historians. Nietzsche's perspectivism is designed to undermine appeals to standards of impersonal truth both in understanding morality and in narrating its history. The issues dividing Sidgwick from Marx and from Nietzsche are of course philosophical as well as historical. Any attempt to judge which of them is in...

‘continental’ and ‘analytic’

‘continental’ and ‘analytic’   Reference library

Stephen Priest

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,657 words

...emigrés from Nazism such as Carl Hempel , if not by members of the Frankfurt School, such as Marcuse and Horkheimer . Rorty 's pragmatic post-modern relativism is essentially Derridian, but those components of Derrida's writing are anticipated in turn by Nietzsche's ‘perspectivism’.‘Continental philosophy’ has become a name for doing exegesis on the texts (or, more usually, the translations) of existentialism, phenomenology, structuralism, or post-structuralism. ‘Analytical philosophy’ has become a collective name for Frege's philosophy, Logical...

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm   Reference library

Richard Schacht

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
4,689 words

...of perspectives upon the matters with which he was concerned, and so of developing and sharpening what he called the many and different ‘eyes’ needed to contribute to a growing and deepening comprehension of them. This has an important bearing upon the question of how his perspectivism is to be understood, and how it works in practice. Nietzsche clearly held that neither this sort of inquiry nor any other that is humanly possible will suffice to enable one to attain the sort of knowledge to which metaphysicians have traditionally aspired. It by no means...

MacIntyre, Alasdair Chalmers

MacIntyre, Alasdair Chalmers (1929–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
4,149 words

...associated virtues have a history and history does not reveal any unified conception of the virtues nor agreement about particular virtues. As a result some claim that MacIntyre himself succumbs to relativism. He offers Aristotelian teleology as an alternative to Nietzschean perspectivism, yet these can be thought incommensurable alternatives, and as such they present a choice without reason. This MacIntyre concedes. “For nothing I have said goes any way to show that a situation could not arise in which it proved possible to discover no rational way to settle...

Ernest Sosa

Ernest Sosa  

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Subject:
Philosophy
(1940– ).Romeo Elton Professor of Natural Theology at Brown University, recognized for contributions in epistemology, metaphysics, and the philosophy of mind. Sosa is best known for ‘virtue ...
José Ortega y Gasset

José Ortega y Gasset  

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Subject:
Philosophy
(1883–1955)Spanish philosopher, opponent of Franco and critic of modern democracy.Born in Madrid of wealthy parents, Ortega was educated at the University of Madrid, where he obtained his doctorate ...
Protagoras

Protagoras  

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Philosophy
Of Abdera (c.490–420 bc), the most celebrated of the sophists. He travelled widely throughout the Greek world, including several visits to Athens, where he was associated with Pericles. He was ...
relativism

relativism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The doctrine that knowledge, truth, and morality exist in relation to culture, society, or historical context, and are not absolute.
Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche  

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Subject:
Philosophy
(b Röcken, 15 Oct. 1844; d Weimar, 25 Aug. 1900).German philosopher. His influence on 19th- and 20th-century thought has been profound. He first met Wagner in 1868 and under ...
Chladenius, Johann Martin

Chladenius, Johann Martin (1710–59)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,054 words

...sometimes said that Chladenius's considerations come down to a strong relativism in historical analysis. However, this is misguided. To begin with, his hermeneutics was directed against historical Pyrrhonism, and thus could hardly be intended to be in favour of relativism or perspectivism. Moreover, several of Chladenius's specific claims undermine such an interpretation. For example, 1) he assumes that there is an underlying unity of history – history as the object of our narrations, not the narrations themselves. 2) Due to the underlying unity of history,...

Breitinger, Johann Jacob

Breitinger, Johann Jacob (1701–76)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,561 words

..., J. J. Bodmer und J. J. Breitinger (Stuttgart, 1973) (contains bibliography). Horch, Hans Otto and Georg Michael Schulz , Das Wunderbare und die Poetik der Frühaufklärung. Gottsched und die Schweizer (Darmstadt, 1988). Kowalik, Jill Anne , The Poetics of Historical Perspectivism: Breitinger's ‘Critische Dichtkunst’ and the Neoclassic Tradition (Chapel Hill et al., 1992). Lindner, Karena Ricarda , Konzeptionen der Metapher in der Sprachtheorie der Aufklärung: Die Metapher bei Gottsched, Bodmer und Breitinger (Heidelberg, 1999). Möller, Uwe , ...

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