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perspectivism

See also epistemology; Thomas theorem. 1. Broadly, the stance that the truth of any knowledge or fact is tied to a particular frame of ...

Auerbach, Erich

Auerbach, Erich (1892–1957)   Reference library

Jan Ziolkowski

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,510 words

...favored the imitation of models. Throughout his career, Auerbach consistently devoted substantial energies to the aesthetic historicism of Vico: he published more than a dozen essays and books concerned with Vico. From Vico, Auerbach derived what he defined as “historical perspectivism.” This historical outlook entailed a distinctive aesthetics, namely, “the conviction that every civilization and every period has its own possibilities of aesthetic perfection; that the works of art of different peoples and periods, as well as their general forms of life, must...

Pragmatism

Pragmatism   Reference library

David Raskin

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,916 words

...that are taken for granted in the basis of civilization and that form the subsoil of conscious beliefs and efforts” ( Dewey, 1934 ). In this sense, the pragmatic method of testing truth within an ongoing process of trial and error could be considered a generalized cultural perspectivism, as “culture wars” and debates about canonicity would appear to show. Truth for a pragmatist is a posteriori rather than a priori; it is repeatedly checked and balanced. Historically, Dewey had important relationships with the American art historian Meyer Schapiro, his student...

Luhmann, Niklas

Luhmann, Niklas (1927–1998)   Reference library

Francis Halsall

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,581 words

...the comparisons between the self-reflexivity of systems theory, especially that of second- and third-order observations, in which systems observe their own operations, and deconstruction. The process of second-order observation, in particular, recalls both Nietzsche’s perspectivism and Foucault’s account of the necessary and constitutive relationships between discursive observations and their objects. The most sustained critique of Luhmann’s work came from Habermas, who collaborated with Luhmann on a joint seminar at the Max Planck Institute in the early...

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm   Reference library

Bernd Magnus, Julian Young, Kathleen Marie Higgins, Gary Shapiro, and David Wellbery

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
16,492 words

...morality, and religion, a critique that is parasitic on a “positive” set of doctrines, for example, the “will to power,” “perspectivism,” “eternal recurrence,” and the Übermensch (“superman,” “overman”). Viewed in this way, perspectivism is a concept that holds that there are no immaculate perceptions, that the idea of knowledge from no point of view is as incoherent a notion as is seeing from no particular vantage point. Perspectivism also denies the possibility of an all-inclusive perspective that could contain all others, and, hence, make reality...

Haptic Aesthetics

Haptic Aesthetics   Reference library

Laura Marks

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,808 words

...not idolatrous. In the ninth century, Theodore of Stoudios argued that the icon painter made no artifice but faithfully imprinted on the board the impression that was printed on his eyes. The Byzantine theory of the tactile image fell out of favor in the West with the rise of perspectivism. So too did any idea that vision entails a bodily contact between the viewer and the thing viewed. Renaissance and Enlightenment beliefs that vision was objective and disembodied permitted an understanding of subjectivity in which perceiver and perceived, inside and outside,...

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice   Reference library

Galen A. Johnson and Vesela Sretenović

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,307 words

...all too often invisible. We live with someone we love all our lives but never “see” her or him. In privileging Cézanne to develop this aesthetic, Merleau-Ponty did not mean to speak for one moment in the history of painting or art in order to exclude others such as classical perspectivism or Cubism or Abstract Expressionism, as has sometimes been claimed (as in Jean-François Lyotard’s Discours, figure ; see Michel Haar’s “Painting, Perception, Affectivity,” in Fóti, 1996 ). He argued that Cézanne, in spite all his own self-doubts, and in spite of the...

Truth

Truth   Reference library

Peter Lamarque and Stein Haugom Olsen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,226 words

...century have been structuralism and its descendants, poststructuralism and postmodernism. Four antecedents (at least) helped shape this complex of ideas. First, there is Friedrich Nietzsche’s (1844–1900) view that there are “no facts, only interpretations,” a view he dubbed “Perspectivism” ( The Will to Power , 1901 ) ; the rejection of absolute or universal truth is a central tenet of poststructuralism. Second, there is the general Marxist doctrine that the significance of art lies as much in what it conceals—its ideology, the conditions of its production—as...

French Aesthetics

French Aesthetics   Reference library

Gita May and Gary Shapiro

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,866 words

...of intentionality that structure all experience an endless task, so Cézanne, on this view, kept going back beyond the easy abstractions of convention and tradition to disclose the nature of vision. For the painter this entailed a questioning of the residues of quattrocento perspectivism, according to which the world is seen by a monocular, immobile gaze that transcends the field that it dominates. It also entailed Cézanne’s parting ways with the impressionists, rejecting their dissolution of everything into light; he insisted on the obstinacy of the object....

Literature

Literature   Reference library

Stein Haugom Olsen, Bruce Robbins, and Bernard Harrison

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,499 words

...enterprise one can roughly distinguish at least three major strands of thought. First, there is the line of theorizing opened up by the denial that there is any one point of view from which the “truth of things” can be wholly, or finally, apprehended. Friedrich Nietzsche’s “perspectivism” is one expression of this, as is William Blake’s rejection of “single vision and Newton’s sleep” in favor of the kind of “Vision” invoked by such lines as “The Vision of Christ that thou dost see / Is my Vision’s Greatest Enemy” ( The Everlasting Gospel , 1818 ). A second line...

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,106 words

...morality, and religion, a critique that is parasitic on a “positive” set of doctrines, for example, the “will to power,” “perspectivism,” “eternal recurrence,” and the Übermensch (“superman,” “overman”). Viewed in this way, perspectivism is a concept that holds that there are no immaculate perceptions, that the idea of knowledge from no point of view is as incoherent a notion as is seeing from no particular vantage point. Perspectivism also denies the possibility of an all-inclusive perspective that could contain all others, and, hence, make reality...

Auerbach, Erich

Auerbach, Erich (1892)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,227 words

...favored the imitation of models. Throughout his career, Auerbach consistently devoted substantial energies to the aesthetic historicism of Vico: he published more than a dozen essays and books concerned with Vico. From Vico, Auerbach derived what he defined as “historical perspectivism.” This historical outlook entailed a distinctive aesthetics, namely, “the conviction that every civilization and every period has its own possibilities of aesthetic perfection; that the works of art of different peoples and periods, as well as their general forms of life, must...

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1908)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,006 words

...all too often invisible. We live with someone we love all our lives but never “see” her or him. In privileging Cézanne to develop this aesthetic, Merleau-Ponty did not mean to speak for one moment in the history of painting or art in order to exclude others such as classical perspectivism or Cubism or Abstract Expressionism, as has sometimes been claimed ( Jean-François Lyotard , Discours, Figure ; Michel Haar , in Fóti, ed., 1996 ). He argued that Cézanne, in spite all his own self-doubts, in spite of the withering attacks of the critics and “official art”...

Truth

Truth   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,019 words

...have been structuralism and its descendants, poststructuralism and postmodernism. Four antecedents (at least) helped shape this complex of ideas. First, there is Friedrich Nietzsche 's ( 1844–1900 ) view that there are “no facts only interpretations” a view he dubbed “Perspectivism” ( The Will to Power , 1901 ); the rejection of absolute or universal truth is a central tenet of poststructuralism. Second, there is the general Marxist doctrine that the significance of art lies as much in what it conceals—its ideology, the conditions of its production—as...

French Aesthetics

French Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,609 words

...that structure all experience an endless task, so Cézanne, on this view, kept going back beyond the easy abstractions of convention and tradition in order to disclose the nature of vision. For the painter this entailed a questioning of the residues of quattrocento perspectivism, according to which the world is seen by a monocular, immobile gaze that transcends the field it dominates. It also entailed Cézanne's parting ways with the impressionists, rejecting their dissolution of everything into light; he insisted on the obstinacy of the object....

Literature

Literature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,159 words

...enterprise one can roughly distinguish at least three major strands of thought. First there is the line of theorizing opened up by the denial that there is any one point of view from which the “truth of things” can be wholly, or finally, apprehended. Friedrich Nietzsche 's “perspectivism” is one expression of this, as is William Blake 's rejection of “single vision and Newton's sleep” in favor of the kind of “Vision” invoked by such lines as “The Vision of Christ that thou dost see/Is my Vision's Greatest Enemy” ( The Everlasting Gospel, 1818 ). A second line...

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