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Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)

Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)   Reference library

Ronald G. KNAPP

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... siheyuan , the main hall, called a zhengtang , is a low, south-facing, single-story building on the northern side of the courtyard. Within this building the senior generation resides, with space for entertaining guests and family. Bedrooms and studies are also found here. Perpendicular to the main structure is a pair of flanking buildings, one facing east and the other west, normally used to house married sons and their families. An important element of Beijing siheyuan is the set of narrow covered verandas that serve as all-weather passageways around the...

Shang Dynasty

Shang Dynasty (1766 bce–1045 bce)   Reference library

Dallas L. McCURLEY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...tributes from surrounding polities, and many other things. The divinatory method was to apply a hot poker to hollows carved into the bones, causing roughly T-shaped cracks to appear on the opposite side. The king interpreted these according to the degree of angle between perpendicular and cross-bar, and uttered a prognostication based on the divination’s verdict. Following this, the day of the divination, the name of the diviner, the questions asked by the diviner, and the king’s final verdict were inscribed on the bone or plastron, which was stored away...

Mosque

Mosque   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
18,226 words
Illustration(s):
5

...a century before in the al-Aqsā Mosque at Jerusalem. Built by the Umayyad caliph al-Walīd between 709 and 715 , the al-Aqṣā was severely damaged in the earthquake of 747 and was almost entirely rebuilt and enlarged by al-Mahdī ( r. 775–785 ), with aisles running perpendicular to the qiblah wall. By contrast, the congregational mosque al-Walīd built at Damascus ( 705–715 ) had a lofty central hall flanked by gable-roofed wings that were divided into three lateral aisles by two rows of columns. The columns supported riwāq walls pierced by arched...

Guitar

Guitar   Reference library

Jeffrey J. Noonan

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,598 words

...carrying six strings tuned E – A – d – g – b – e '. Traditionally constructed of wood, its body most often follows a figure-eight shape. The guitar's headstock extends straight up the neck in the same general plane, and tuning mechanisms usually pierce the headstock perpendicularly. Introduced to the Americas by Spanish and French explorers in the early colonial era, the guitar achieved widespread popularity in the 19th century. For much of that period it was regarded in the United States as a genteel, middle-class parlor instrument, ideally suited to...

Grainger

Grainger (8 July 1882)   Reference library

Malcolm Gillies and David Pear

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,203 words

...versions are common. Grainger characterized music primarily by texture and style, finding concepts of structure, form, and development inherently unmusical. He described his own music variously as of smooth, “grained,” and “prickly” textures and sought sameness rather than contrast within individual works. Some of his most subtle textural generation is found in his mature music for band. Stylistically he professed to aim at a “half-horizontal, half-perpendicular polyphonic chord-style,” featuring mildly clashing harmonies as a result of freely moving...

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