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Horsemanship

Horsemanship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,547 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of horsemanship that was characterized by two basic styles (or “seats”) in medieval mounted warfare, each dependent on the length of the stirrup leather. The styles were discussed in Iberian horsemanship treatises of the fifteenth century, as for example King Duarte I of Portugal, Livro da ensinança de bem cavalgar toda sela (Book of Instruction on Riding Well in All Saddles, 1438 ), but the realities of these styles were present much earlier. The Spanish term a la jineta referred to the style of the Muslims of al-Andalus, who rode with short...

Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)

Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)   Reference library

Ronald G. KNAPP

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... siheyuan , the main hall, called a zhengtang , is a low, south-facing, single-story building on the northern side of the courtyard. Within this building the senior generation resides, with space for entertaining guests and family. Bedrooms and studies are also found here. Perpendicular to the main structure is a pair of flanking buildings, one facing east and the other west, normally used to house married sons and their families. An important element of Beijing siheyuan is the set of narrow covered verandas that serve as all-weather passageways around the...

Shang Dynasty

Shang Dynasty (1766 bce–1045 bce)   Reference library

Dallas L. McCURLEY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...tributes from surrounding polities, and many other things. The divinatory method was to apply a hot poker to hollows carved into the bones, causing roughly T-shaped cracks to appear on the opposite side. The king interpreted these according to the degree of angle between perpendicular and cross-bar, and uttered a prognostication based on the divination’s verdict. Following this, the day of the divination, the name of the diviner, the questions asked by the diviner, and the king’s final verdict were inscribed on the bone or plastron, which was stored away...

Mosque

Mosque   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
18,226 words
Illustration(s):
5

...a century before in the al-Aqsā Mosque at Jerusalem. Built by the Umayyad caliph al-Walīd between 709 and 715 , the al-Aqṣā was severely damaged in the earthquake of 747 and was almost entirely rebuilt and enlarged by al-Mahdī ( r. 775–785 ), with aisles running perpendicular to the qiblah wall. By contrast, the congregational mosque al-Walīd built at Damascus ( 705–715 ) had a lofty central hall flanked by gable-roofed wings that were divided into three lateral aisles by two rows of columns. The columns supported riwāq walls pierced by arched...

Economics

Economics   Reference library

Anne Goddeeris, Cynthia Shafer-Elliott, Melissa Mueller, Matthew J. Perry, Neil Elliott, Carrie Elaine Duncan, and Agnes Choi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,716 words

...often referred to as “the Israelite house,” “the pillared house,” “the four-room house,” and “the Iron Age house.” Excavated Iron Age dwellings in Israel have a similar plan and common features: a back broad room with one to three (typically three) rooms or chambers running perpendicular to the broad room, frequently divided by pillars. The social aspect of the bet ʾav consisted primarily of related family members: the father (or patriarch), the mother (or matriarch), possibly secondary wives, unmarried children and paternal sisters, and married sons and...

Curling

Curling   Reference library

Morris MOTT

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
3,641 words

...its throws. They forfeit the match if they fail to do so. Curling Rinks A standard curling rink is between 14.5 and 15 feet wide and at least 146 feet long. As each end is played, only 132 feet of the 146 feet are in play. A centerline bisects the length of the ice, and four perpendicular lines cross the width of the ice at both ends. ( See figure 1 .) The house is centered where the tee line intersects the centerline. The stone must be released before its leading edge touches the near hog line. If a player is still in contact with a stone as it crosses the...

Water Transportation

Water Transportation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
17,247 words
Illustration(s):
4

...eighteenth century, originally carried both square and fore-and-aft sails on its two masts. Reduced to just fore-and-aft sails, schooners could add masts, getting to as many as seven in the last days of sail. Other two-masted ships or even large single-masted ships with perpendicular sides, a single deck, and easily workable rig, such as the smack , the Dutch tjalk , and the kof , supplanted larger types of older design in intra-European trades in the north. Two-masters proved especially useful for coastal or regional trade, which enjoyed rapid growth...

Guitar

Guitar   Reference library

Jeffrey J. Noonan

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,598 words

...carrying six strings tuned E – A – d – g – b – e '. Traditionally constructed of wood, its body most often follows a figure-eight shape. The guitar's headstock extends straight up the neck in the same general plane, and tuning mechanisms usually pierce the headstock perpendicularly. Introduced to the Americas by Spanish and French explorers in the early colonial era, the guitar achieved widespread popularity in the 19th century. For much of that period it was regarded in the United States as a genteel, middle-class parlor instrument, ideally suited to...

Grainger

Grainger (8 July 1882)   Reference library

Malcolm Gillies and David Pear

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,203 words

...versions are common. Grainger characterized music primarily by texture and style, finding concepts of structure, form, and development inherently unmusical. He described his own music variously as of smooth, “grained,” and “prickly” textures and sought sameness rather than contrast within individual works. Some of his most subtle textural generation is found in his mature music for band. Stylistically he professed to aim at a “half-horizontal, half-perpendicular polyphonic chord-style,” featuring mildly clashing harmonies as a result of freely moving...

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