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Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,073 words

...England was well supplied with parish churches, cathedrals, and monasteries by the beginning of the sixteenth century. The Perpendicular Gothic style, which had come into use about 1350 , was unique to England, although it had some similarities to Flamboyant Gothic in France. English Perpendicular buildings were characterized by large windows, divided into sections by stone tracery bars meeting each other at perpendicular angles. Cathedrals and the most elaborate parish churches had fan-vaulted ceilings of stone, while the usual church had a timber...

Contracts

Contracts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...in narrow horizontal strips from the top down to the end of the upper copy, tied with string looped and knotted at several points, and in at least one case (deed of sale Mur 29) sealed. Witnesses affixed their signatures on the back of the sheet, one next to each of the ties, perpendicular to the direction of the writing of the text on the front. The bottom copy would be similarly folded in horizontal strips from the bottom up, but neither tied nor sealed. The two copies are known, therefore, as the inner and outer (in 5/6Ḥev 12.3: en tois exoterois ) copies,...

Mosque

Mosque   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
18,226 words
Illustration(s):
5

...a century before in the al-Aqsā Mosque at Jerusalem. Built by the Umayyad caliph al-Walīd between 709 and 715 , the al-Aqṣā was severely damaged in the earthquake of 747 and was almost entirely rebuilt and enlarged by al-Mahdī ( r. 775–785 ), with aisles running perpendicular to the qiblah wall. By contrast, the congregational mosque al-Walīd built at Damascus ( 705–715 ) had a lofty central hall flanked by gable-roofed wings that were divided into three lateral aisles by two rows of columns. The columns supported riwāq walls pierced by arched...

Economics

Economics   Reference library

Anne Goddeeris, Cynthia Shafer-Elliott, Melissa Mueller, Matthew J. Perry, Neil Elliott, Carrie Elaine Duncan, and Agnes Choi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,716 words

...often referred to as “the Israelite house,” “the pillared house,” “the four-room house,” and “the Iron Age house.” Excavated Iron Age dwellings in Israel have a similar plan and common features: a back broad room with one to three (typically three) rooms or chambers running perpendicular to the broad room, frequently divided by pillars. The social aspect of the bet ʾav consisted primarily of related family members: the father (or patriarch), the mother (or matriarch), possibly secondary wives, unmarried children and paternal sisters, and married sons and...

Farrukh Chela

Farrukh Chela (fl. c.1580–c.1604)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
483 words

...court, Farrukh Chela must have been fully trained in the given style when he entered the imperial studio, yet he retained his personal style, including highly finished architecture with dry modeling; a deep landscape with rocky vistas, usually of boulders punctuated with hairy plants or shrubs; and in later stages a deep ink-blue strip as sky, other colors ranging from brick red to a pale mauve. He typically divided space in horizontal platform-like plateaux, sometimes with perpendicular drops and vertical, regular, panel-like shading. His human figures...

Gothic Revival

Gothic Revival   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,387 words

...in this respect, not least by categorizing the development of medieval styles into Norman, Early-English, Decorated, and Perpendicular, and helping to distinguish between the Romanesque and the Gothic. This Gothic Revival was a genuinely pan-European movement, with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ( 1749–1842 ) wanting to substitute the term ‘German’ for ‘Gothic’ and the French politician François-René de Chateaubriand ( 1768–1848 ) celebrating the contributions of his own nation to the style in his Génie du Christianisme ( 1802 ). Much of the early 19th century...

Tughra

Tughra   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
996 words

...the letters nūn and sīn . Under the Ottomans the tughra was used only in documents sent from the capital to the provinces. High officials, who sometimes used a similarly shaped monogram of their own, did not put it at the top of the document but rather on the right margin, perpendicular to the text. The earliest Ottoman tughras were rather simple, written in black or gold ink. During the reign of Selim I ( r. 1512–20 ), blue ink outlined in gold or blue on a gold ground became fashionable, and fine spiral and arabesque designs filled the curves. Towards the...

Tunis

Tunis   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,025 words

..., Tunis became second city of the region. The Zaytuna (“Olive tree”) Mosque, founded in 732 , was rebuilt between 856 and 864 by Abu Ibrahim Ahmad , sixth ruler of the Aghlabid dynasty ( r. 800–909 ; see Architecture , §IV, C ). The prayer-hall has 15 aisles perpendicular to the qibla; the wide central aisle is surmounted by two cupolas, a gadrooned one ( 864 ) over the bay before the mihrab and another with polychrome decoration (11th century) facing the court. The trapezoidal court was lined at a later date with an arcaded gallery, and the...

Kairouan

Kairouan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,275 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 817–38 ). Additional work was completed in 862 in the reign of Abu Ibrahim Ahmad . The mosque is a roughly rectangular structure with maximum interior dimensions of 122×70 m; it has a court surrounded by arcades and a hypo style prayer-hall occupying about one-third of the surface area. The prayer-hall, which has 17 aisles perpendicular to the qibla wall, has domes at either end of the wider central aisle. One stands over the bay in front of the mihrab, and the other abuts the courtyard. The colonnades of the central aisle were doubled in the later 9th...

Palace

Palace   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
3,523 words
Illustration(s):
1

...while the horizontal expanse of Madinat al-Zahra , the 10th-century palace–city of the Spanish Umayyad dynasty ( r. 756–1031 ) outside Córdoba ( see Architecture , fig. 26 ), may have been inspired by the palaces of Samarra. Throughout the western Islamic lands the perpendicular juxtaposition of two rectangular halls was a characteristic unit that eventually evolved into the inverted T-plan reception room, evident for example at the Alhambra ( see Granada , §III, 1 ). The most famous and best-preserved palace in the Islamic west, the Alhambra is...

Irish art

Irish art   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,985 words

...a fine fake Perpendicular tracery ceiling with pendant drops. Many Catholic churches are by Pugin and his son. Typical of the grander, serious type of Gothic Revival churches are the magnificent pair in Cork. The Catholic one is by the younger Pugin, of 1868–79 , in a style reminiscent of Coutances in Normandy, and the Anglican one is by Burges, 1865–79 , with three towers and spires, the central one 240 ft. high; it is probably the most splendid church in Ireland. But nothing of the ancient artistic quality has surfaced over the imported styles, nor been...

Woodwork

Woodwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
15,790 words
Illustration(s):
10

...placed. The side panels for minbars were usually made with interlocking pieces. Tongue-edged lozenges, octagons and stars carved with arabesques are joined by grooved frames without glue or pins, a technique known in Turkish as kündekâri . The pieces were set with the grain perpendicular to the grain of the frame to prevent warping, and the joined panels were further supported on a wooden substructure. Earlier examples such as the minbars from the mosque of Alaeddin in Konya ( 1155–6 ) and the congregational mosques of Siirt and Malatya (both 13th century;...

Gothic art and architecture

Gothic art and architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
7,068 words

...by Anglo-Saxon and Norman art and architecture . The High Middle Ages ( c .1000–1300) in Britain begins with Early English Gothic from 1180 to 1275 (Rickman) or 1307 (Pevsner), and is followed in the Late Middle Ages ( c .1300–1500) by Decorated Gothic ( 1275–1380 ) and Perpendicular ( 1380–1520 ) which continues until the beginning of the Renaissance. By extension, though less accurately, the other arts produced within the same time-span came to be given the same names. The ease with which this period could be consigned to lesser status was clearly due to...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
117,015 words
Illustration(s):
77

...palmettes and fleurons in the Almohad style and a square stone minaret decorated with lozenge-net panels and topped by a lantern crowned with a pyramid of green tiles. The building remains faithful to local principles in its massing, use of stone, prayer-hall roofed with groin vaults resting on columns and vertical grooves decorating the mihrab niche. The Hawa Mosque, founded in the suburbs of Tunis by Abu Zakariya's widow, the princess ῾Atf, has an oblong prayer-hall divided into seven aisles of six bays perpendicular to the qibla. The 42 square bays are...

Jerusalem

Jerusalem   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,763 words
Illustration(s):
2

...19 sq. m of covered area was added to the north, and the interior space was articulated more boldly. The mosque acquired its distinctive many-naved form, with a raised and wider central gable and, unusually, a dome over the second bay in front of the mihrab. The aisles were perpendicular to the qibla wall; their length necessitated a clerestory for adequate lighting. No courtyard was necessary because of the presence of the Haram to the north. Leading into the sanctuary, a triple gateway, with three central arches larger than those on either side, was the...

Romanesque art and architecture

Romanesque art and architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
11,116 words

...façades, those of St-Étienne now crowned by beautiful Gothic spires. The severity of the façade of St-Étienne, with its rows of tall round-headed windows, are what English Romanesque church façades were probably like before the almost universal intrusion into them of huge Perpendicular Gothic traceried windows. The three tiers of choir windows in La Trinité are also found at the very damaged Cerisy-la-Forêt, near Bayeux. Lessay, N. of Coutances, founded from Bec, was built between about 1030 and 1091 on the normal Cluniac design of Bernay, with a long nave,...

Military architecture and fortification

Military architecture and fortification   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
10,258 words
Illustration(s):
4

...are again pierced by archery openings and defended by loopholed brattices on stone consoles. Topped by a crenellated parapet and wall-walk, the high curtains have square salients and several gates. Some of the Mamluk gates are flanked by pairs of towers, and the passage is perpendicular to the face of the curtain; others, such as the 15th century Bab Qinnasrin, open in the side of a tower parallel to the curtain and make an angle into the city. The Ayyubid citadel (Arab. qal῾a ) was likewise restored after the Mongol devastations. With the shifting of the...

Canterbury

Canterbury  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
In 597 St Augustine arrived in Canterbury and established his first church there. He had been instructed to organize England in two provinces, with archbishops at London and York, but from the first ...
Westminster Abbey

Westminster Abbey  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Has been the setting for the coronation of English monarchs since 1066, when William the Conqueror was crowned in the new church of Edward the Confessor, perhaps to underline continuity; from Henry ...
Worcester

Worcester   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
116 words

...(completed in 983). After this had been destroyed by the Danes, it was rebuilt ( 1084–9 ) by St Wulfstan ; after a fire and the collapse of the central tower, it was restored and reconsecrated in 1218 . It has been much altered. The choir is Early English and the nave Perpendicular in style. The monastery was suppressed in 1540 and a secular chapter was in place by 1542...

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