You are looking at 1-20 of 20 entries  for:

  • All: perpendicular style x
clear all

View:

Kreutzberg, Harald

Kreutzberg, Harald (11 December 1902)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
825 words

...in distant vision. Mr. Kreutzberg—with Miss Georgi not too far behind—is full-furnished exemplar of this new liberty and abundance. His body is the ready, manifold servant of imagination and will. It takes, on the instant, any contour that he desires, be it curve or angle, perpendicular or diagonal; weaves itself into intricate patterns; vibrates to rhythm and counter-rhythm; defines the long line; snaps out the short phrase; runs a gamut of intensities and shadings.(Taylor, 1982, p. 202) Kreutzberg's joint dance evenings with Georgi ended at the Berlin State...

Laban Principles of Movement Analysis

Laban Principles of Movement Analysis   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
5,461 words

...that radiate from the center of the upright body. Directions are associated with two states of equilibrium, the stable and the mobile or labile. Dimensional directions are predominantly stable owing to the balancing of the body mass around the center of weight and its perpendicular relationship to the support. Diagonal directions move the body center out of the vertical alignment over the support and thus promote lability or mobility. (Laban used the term lability in his German writings and mobility in the English books.) Spatial Scales and Rings By...

Révérence

Révérence   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
4,761 words

...of the feet, torso, head and eyes, arms, and hands and fingers as well as the removal of the gentleman's hat were explained in elaborate detail. A gentleman did not bow his head but kept it in line with the body, and a lady was instructed to keep her body as well as her head perpendicular. The eyes for both were directed toward the person honored, for “what looks worse, when respect is meant to be conveyed, than to present the hair of the head” (Saltator, 1802, p. 69). The arms were to hang down naturally and without stiffness, the hands somewhat bent, and the...

Korea

Korea   Reference library

Lee Du-hyon

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
7,848 words

...that they twirl over and around their heads as they dance; and the Drum Dance, in which the performer dances before a large round drum struck at certain intervals during the dance. Perhaps the most notable characteristic of Buddhist ritual dance is the position of the feet—perpendicular to each other, with the heel of the left foot raised slightly and touching the right between the instep and ankle joint. At the same time, the knees are bent as in a plié . This posture occurs in no other type of Korean traditional dance. It is assumed at the start of the...

Bridge harp

Bridge harp   Reference library

Roderic C. Knight

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
320 words

...from four to 21 or more, are affixed along the neck by rawhide tuning collars and at the opposite end are attached to an iron loop on the protruding spike. A tall bridge standing on the soundtable has notches or holes down both sides; these fan the strings into two rows perpendicular to the soundtable, thus meeting a basic harp criterion. Hornbostel and Sachs saw this instrument as a hybrid and dubbed it ‘harp-lute’. The term ‘bridge harp’, coined by Knight, eliminates this ambiguity, for although the instrument has lute-like features (the straight neck...

Violin

Violin   Reference library

David D. Boyden, Peter Walls, Peter Holman, Karel Moens, Robin Stowell, Peter Cooke, and Alastair Dick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
22,677 words
Illustration(s):
10

...of various pizzicato locations (e.g. mid-point of the string, at or behind the bridge, or either side of the stopping finger) or specific plucking agents (e.g. with the nail or the fleshy pad of the finger), requiring strings to be stopped with the fingernail for pizzicato, perpendicular strumming and oblique strumming of chords, or specifying pizzicato with alternating fingers (e.g. Crumb, Four Nocturnes ). A ‘scooping’ technique was developed to obtain mellow, resonant pizzicatos in single and double stopping. Other effects involved ‘flicking’ the string...

Shimedaiko

Shimedaiko   Reference library

David W. Hughes

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
423 words

... The slightly bulging nōdaiko body, decorated with lacquer, is made most commonly of zelkova wood and has a diameter of about 26 cm and a height of 15 cm. The heads are 35 cm across and are laced tightly over the body with a hemp cord. A second cord is tied around the body perpendicular to this one to tighten the heads further. The upper, playing head is of slightly thicker cowhide than the lower one. The upper head also has a small circle of deerhide on its top centre and a slightly larger one underneath; the upper circle is called ‘stick skin’ and the...

Kŏmun’go

Kŏmun’go   Reference library

Robert C. Provine

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
748 words

...curved front of paulownia wood and the back of chestnut; the interior is hollow. Six strings of twisted silk run from a broad, curved bridge on the performer’s right to moorings looped through holes at the far end; reserve string is kept in coils near the moorings. Glued perpendicularly to the body are 16 thin wooden frets, nearly rectangular and ranging in height from 5.7 to 6 mm. The frets are only wide enough to lie under the second, third, and fourth strings, the tallest fret acting as a nut that suspends these three strings just above the remaining...

Qānūn

Qānūn   Reference library

Christian Poché

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,461 words

...ebony. The longer side varies in length from 75 to 100 cm (some models are as long as 120 cm); in the past, before the invention of levers, a length of 60 cm was known for the Turkish instrument. The short side is from 25 to 45 cm and the width ranges from 32 to 44 cm. The perpendicular section is always on the player’s right. About one-fifth of the surface consists of a narrow section covered in skin (formerly fishskin, now sheepskin or more often an artificial fabric) which runs the width of the instrument. On the left, the soundboard has a number of...

Guitar

Guitar   Reference library

Jeffrey J. Noonan

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,598 words

...carrying six strings tuned E – A – d – g – b – e '. Traditionally constructed of wood, its body most often follows a figure-eight shape. The guitar's headstock extends straight up the neck in the same general plane, and tuning mechanisms usually pierce the headstock perpendicularly. Introduced to the Americas by Spanish and French explorers in the early colonial era, the guitar achieved widespread popularity in the 19th century. For much of that period it was regarded in the United States as a genteel, middle-class parlor instrument, ideally suited to...

Biwa

Biwa   Reference library

Komoda Haruko and Hugh de Ferranti

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
3,232 words

..., the strings are secured to tuning pegs inserted into a pegbox bent back nearly perpendicularly to the neck. Common to the forms of biwa that developed after the 17th century is a buzzing tone quality ( sawari ) produced by contact between a vibrating string and the upper surface of either a fret or the joint of the neck and pegbox. In modern performance the gakubiwa and heikebiwa are held horizontally, while other forms are held at a diagonal or, in the case of some styles of satsumabiwa , nearly 1 . The biwa in the Shōsōin. 2 . Gakubiwa...

Cello

Cello   Reference library

Stephen Bonta, Suzanne Wijsman, and Margaret Campbell

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
7,949 words

...with four strings predominated in Italy by the end of the 17th century, cellos with more than four strings were still used elsewhere. The advent of thumb position fingerings (the technique in which the whole hand is put on top of the strings with the thumb placed across and perpendicular to them, functioning as a moveable nut in relation to the other fingers) may have caused the redundancy of cellos with more than four strings at the beginning of the 18th century. However, five-string cellos were used in Germany into the middle of the 18th century. In addition...

Cittern

Cittern   Reference library

James Tyler

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
3,161 words

...in the instrument-making centre of Brescia during the 1560s, and is exemplified by the instruments of Girolamo di Virchi, G.P. Maggini, and Gasparo da Salò. The soundtable is much more curved and pear-shaped and the sides and back are always made of separate pieces, the sides perpendicular to the front and back; the strings are attached to metal or ivory pins or buttons inserted in the bottom end. Italian citterns are predominantly six-course instruments, the courses either double or a combination of double and single. In the later 16th century the larger ceterone...

Harpsichord

Harpsichord   Reference library

Edwin M. Ripin, Howard Schott, John Koster, Denzil Wraight, John Koster, Beryl Kenyon de Pascual, Edwin M. Ripin, Howard Schott, John Koster, John Koster, Alfons Huber, Denzil Wraight, Francesco Nocerino, Eva Helenius, William R. Dowd, John Koster, Edwin M. Ripin, Howard Schott, Charles Mould, Denzil Wraight, Edwin M. Ripin, HowardSchott, Lance Whitehead, BerylKenyon de Pascual, Luisa Morales, EvaHelenius, Howard Schott, MartinElste, and Anne Beetem Acker

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
35,179 words
Illustration(s):
4

...but also decorated with Antwerp-style soundboard painting and, in the ‘D.F.’, block-printed papers. While some divergences from Ruckers practice, such as the positioning of the bottom braces nearly perpendicular to the bentside rather than to the spine, may be seen as reasonable efforts to strengthen the case, the reinforcement of the soundboard with ribs crossing under the bridges suggests that Richard and ‘D.F.’ did not entirely appreciate all the subtleties of Ruckers soundboard design. Nevertheless, the massive Ruckers-style 4′ hitchpin rails in these...

Grainger

Grainger (8 July 1882)   Reference library

Malcolm Gillies and David Pear

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,203 words

...versions are common. Grainger characterized music primarily by texture and style, finding concepts of structure, form, and development inherently unmusical. He described his own music variously as of smooth, “grained,” and “prickly” textures and sought sameness rather than contrast within individual works. Some of his most subtle textural generation is found in his mature music for band. Stylistically he professed to aim at a “half-horizontal, half-perpendicular polyphonic chord-style,” featuring mildly clashing harmonies as a result of freely moving...

Fingering

Fingering   Reference library

Mark Lindley, Glyn Jenkins, Mark Lindley, Sonya Monosoff, Alison Crum, Peter Walls, SONYA MONOSOFF/PETER WALLS (II, 2(ii)), Suzanne Wijsman, Rodney Slatford, Marc Ecochard, Bruce Haynes, and Arnold Myers

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
21,546 words
Illustration(s):
83

...Duport’s detailed treatment of fingering principles provided the basis for the modern left-hand technique. He advocated a left-hand position that is perpendicular to the neck, with the thumb placed on the neck behind the first and second fingers (the thumb moving with the fingers when shifting), and the use of well-rounded fingers. Like Gunn, Duport expressly advised against using the violin-style oblique position of the left hand on the neck, pointing out its lack of agility in passages in which the hand position must encompass two whole tones between...

Harp

Harp   Reference library

Sue Carole DeVale, Bo Lawergren, Sue Carole DeVale, Sue Carole DeVale, Bo Lawergren, Joan Rimmer, Robert Evans, William Taylor, Karen Loomis, Joan Rimmer, Cristina Bordas, Cheryl Ann Fulton, John M. Schechter, Sue Carole DeVale, Nancy Thym-Hochrein, Hannelore Devaere, Ronald Stevenson, Sue Carole DeVale, Nancy Thym-Hochrein, Mary McMaster, and Nancy Hurrell

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
34,223 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Harp (Fr. harpe ; Ger. Harfe ; It., Sp. arpa ). Generic name for chordophones in which, as defined in the classification system by Hornbostel and Sachs, the plane of the strings is perpendicular to the I . Introduction. II . Ancient harps. 1 . Introduction. 2 . Numbers of strings. 3 . Regional inventories. III . Africa. 1 . History and distribution. 2 . Organology and construction. 3 . Performing techniques. 4 . Performance practices. IV . Asia. V . Europe and the Americas. 1 . The Middle Ages and the early...

Piano

Piano   Reference library

Edwin M. Ripin, Stewart Pollens, Edwin M. Ripin, Stewart Pollens, Michael Latcham, Philip R. Belt, Maribel Meisel, Alfons Huber, Michael Cole, Philip R. Belt, Maribel Meisel, Gert Hecher, Anne Beetem Acker, Michael Cole, Beryl Kenyon de Pascual, Michael Latcham, Cynthia Adams Hoover, Cyril Ehrlich, Edwin M. Good, Cyril Ehrlich, Edwin M. Good, Anne Beetem Acker, Robert Winter, Robert Winter, Anne Beetem Acker, and J. Bradford Robinson

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
25,722 words
Illustration(s):
19

...1777 vis-à-vis instrument, and probably a harp stop, also in the vis-à-vis. Stein’s grand pianos have a double-curved bentside. Inside, the soundboard liners, of solid wood, reach down to the baseboard, reinforcing the case walls. The walls are braced by two or three members perpendicular to the spine (the straight side of the instrument) and two or three diagonal supports. The case is closed at the bottom by a thick baseboard with the grain running parallel to the straight section of the bentside, and is usually veneered in plain walnut or cherry with moulding...

Xylophone

Xylophone   Reference library

Lois Ann Anderson, James Blades, George List, and Linda L. O’Brien-Rothe

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
8,728 words

...posts, and sometimes also to the horizontal crosspieces at each end of the instrument. The size of the instrument varies. Smaller instruments (in the west and central area of distribution) can rest on the ground, or be slung from the player’s shoulders with the instrument perpendicular or parallel to the body. The row of bars curves slightly at the broader end of the instrument, where ogee-shaped horizontal crosspieces also accommodate the larger calabashes within the frame. Larger instruments (in the eastern area of distribution) rest on the ground in...

Temperaments

Temperaments   Reference library

-MARK Lindley

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
19,638 words
Illustration(s):
22

...Grammateus published in his arithmetic book of 1518 a simple diagram ( fig. 1 ) showing how the geometrical mean between two pipe lengths in the ratio 9:8 could be determined by drawing a semicircle on the sum of the lengths 9 and 8 taken as diameter, and then measuring the perpendicular from the juncture of the two lengths. By this means the Pythagorean whole tone would be, in theory, divided into two musically equal semitones. Grammateus referred to these as ‘minor semitones’, and other theorists later used that term to designate equal semitones on the lute...

View: