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Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)

Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)   Reference library

Ronald G. KNAPP

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... siheyuan , the main hall, called a zhengtang , is a low, south-facing, single-story building on the northern side of the courtyard. Within this building the senior generation resides, with space for entertaining guests and family. Bedrooms and studies are also found here. Perpendicular to the main structure is a pair of flanking buildings, one facing east and the other west, normally used to house married sons and their families. An important element of Beijing siheyuan is the set of narrow covered verandas that serve as all-weather passageways around the...

Shang Dynasty

Shang Dynasty (1766 bce–1045 bce)   Reference library

Dallas L. McCURLEY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...tributes from surrounding polities, and many other things. The divinatory method was to apply a hot poker to hollows carved into the bones, causing roughly T-shaped cracks to appear on the opposite side. The king interpreted these according to the degree of angle between perpendicular and cross-bar, and uttered a prognostication based on the divination’s verdict. Following this, the day of the divination, the name of the diviner, the questions asked by the diviner, and the king’s final verdict were inscribed on the bone or plastron, which was stored away...

Perpendicular architecture

Perpendicular architecture   Reference library

T. E. Faulkner

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
449 words

...), with its remarkable pendant-vaulted roof, is another excellent example. Quintessentially Perpendicular is King’s College chapel , Cambridge ( 1447–1515 ), where the new, more open concept of space and light is seen to advantage in a building almost like an elaborate cage of glass and stone. This had later parallels in the development of domestic architecture during the Tudor period, as at Hardwick Hall , Derbyshire (‘more glass than wall’). The Perpendicular style seems to have originated in the remodelling of the choir and east end of Gloucester cathedral...

Oxford, St Mary the Virgin

Oxford, St Mary the Virgin   Reference library

A. S. Hargreaves

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
105 words

...centre of the fledgling medieval university, St Mary’s was the seat of its government, academic disputation, and award of degrees until the mid-17th cent.; the attached Old Congregation House ( c. 1320 ) contained the first university library. Considerably rebuilt in the perpendicular style, it hosted the trials of the Oxford martyrs ( Latimer , Ridley , Cranmer ) in 1554–6 , gained the Laudian ‘Virgin porch’ whose Marian statue so incensed the puritans, heard Wesley and Newman preach, and saw the launch of the ‘Oxford’ or ‘tractarian’ movement for...

Pugin, Augustus Welby

Pugin, Augustus Welby (1812–52)   Reference library

Bernard Porter

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
199 words

...Christian—by which he meant Roman catholic—style. His book Contrasts ( 1836 ) set drawings of medieval buildings beside drawings of their modern—square, crude, simple—equivalents, in order to show how much more attractive the former were. It was grossly unfair, but influential. Pugin was commissioned to put his set-square where his mouth was all over the country. Alton Towers ( 1836 ), Scarisbrick Hall ( 1837 ), the catholic cathedrals of Birmingham ( 1841 ) and Newcastle ( 1844 ), and the lush Perpendicular-style detailing of the new Houses of Parliament...

Gloucester, diocese of

Gloucester, diocese of   Reference library

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
200 words

...tradition of puritanism, which became a target for both James I and Laud . James Monk ( 1830–56 ) was a vigorous bishop, who did much to improve the finances of livings. The Norman cathedral, previously St Peter’s Benedictine abbey church, was partly transformed in perpendicular style, reputedly the earliest example, by the inflow of money from pilgrims to the shrine of Edward II . The tomb of Robert of Normandy , William I ’s eldest son, who died in Cardiff castle, is also there. The 14th-cent. fan-vaulted cloisters are among the finest in England....

Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture   Reference library

T. E. Faulkner

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
522 words

...( c. 1180–1270 ); ‘Decorated’ ( c. 1270–1370 ); ‘Perpendicular’ ( c. 1350–1550 ). The first of these has an austere purity, as in the examples of early Gothic mentioned above, and utilizes the simple, ‘lancet’ window type (e.g. the ‘five sisters’ window in the north transept of York minster, c. 1250 ). The ‘Decorated’ is marked by intricate vaulting and window tracery (as in the nave of Exeter cathedral, 1328–42 , and the early 14th-cent. east window at Carlisle); and the uniquely English ‘Perpendicular’ by even more elaborate vaulting, and ever-larger...

architecture

architecture   Reference library

T. E. Faulkner

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,333 words

...was replaced by ‘Norman’; this was, in effect, a version of the European Romanesque style, with fine ashlar masonry, heavy columns, and round arches. The Normans built castles and cathedrals which were not only centres of power in their own right, but symbolized the cultural and political superiority of the new regime. The Gothic style flourished from c. 1200 to the early 16th cent., with many uniquely British developments such as the late ‘Perpendicular’ phase. Further potential development along Gothic lines was curtailed by Henry VIII’s ...

Gloucester, diocese of

Gloucester, diocese of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
64 words

...diocese of The see, conterminous with Gloucestershire, was founded in 1541 by Henry VIII from part of the Worcester diocese. The Norman cathedral, previously St Peter's Benedictine abbey church, was partly transformed in Perpendicular style, reputedly the earliest example, by the inflow of money from pilgrims to the shrine of Edward II. The 14th‐cent. fan‐vaulted cloisters are among the finest in...

architecture

architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,937 words

...and seminaries were large, multi-storey blocks, featuring steeply pitched roofs, dormer windows, and sophisticated planning. The seigneurial system of land tenure was used until 1854 in the St Lawrence Valley. Seigneuries were typically divided into long and narrow lots perpendicular to the St Lawrence and other rivers. The seigneur retained a manor house, built and operated a communal mill, and provided for a church and presbytery. The dwellings of rural habitants were typically small and rectangular, with steeply pitched, bell-cast roofs extending over...

Art and Architecture

Art and Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
9,224 words
Illustration(s):
2

...late-nineteenth-century debate about the development of a national architectural style. The debate revolved around the use of a neo-indigenous versus a European-based classical or even neo-Gothic architectural style for new public buildings. Much of Europe was then using the Beaux Arts style of elaborate classicism, as was the United States. This controversy arose within the context of self-conscious presence in various international arenas. Exemplary of the “neo-indigenist” style are the decorative bas-reliefs on the base of Noreña's statue of Cuauhtemoc,...

Ballgame

Ballgame   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,787 words

...form of ballgame architecture. Ballcourts are essentially formed by two parallel mounds flanking a central alley. The Classic period ballcourt is defined by an I-shaped playing alley, with side benches and sloping side walls, and two end zones. Postclassic ballcourts have perpendicular side walls. Rooms were frequently built a top the parallel structures. Players may have used these rooms to prepare for the game, including steaming, bathing, and other ritual activities. Spectators were probably accommodated along platforms and structures outside each end...

Xochicalco

Xochicalco   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,252 words
Illustration(s):
1

...through the opening of the tube for a period of 105 days—from 30 April to 13 August—and remains without illumination for 260 days. The zenith passage of the sun in the latitude of Xochicalco occurs on 14–15 May and 28x2013;29 July, dates in which the sun's rays fall at a perpendicular angle on the chamber floor through the tube. These astronomical events are directly related to the calendar, as much with the so-called xíhuitl , or civil calendar, of 365 (105+260) days, as with the tonalpohualli , or ritual calendar, of 260 days, which are known in great...

Teotihuacan

Teotihuacan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,991 words

...of the Great Compound. The two roads divide the city into four quadrants; the Ciudadela, situated at the intersection, no doubt had special importance; this division into four quarters is related to Mesoamerican cosmology. Nearly all the constructions were built parallel or perpendicular to the main axes and are placed at regular intervals. On the neighboring mountain slopes, some kilometers from the center of the city, other constructions are also aligned to the city's grid (Millon 1967 ). The city had two main plazas: one is crowned by the Pyramid of the...

diocese of Gloucester

diocese of Gloucester  

The see, conterminous with Gloucestershire, was founded in 1541 by Henry VIII from part of the Worcester diocese. The Norman cathedral, previously St Peter's Benedictine abbey church, was partly ...
parish churches

parish churches  

There are parish churches of all sizes, ages, and architectural styles, with internal fittings equally diverse. What is common to all of them is that they are buildings at the centres of their ...
Britain 1066-1500

Britain 1066-1500: 1066 - 1499  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...a new kind of knighthood with the Order of the Garter, conferred purely as an honour Garter, Order of the A Dictionary of British History 1 rev 14th century Social and domestic British Isles Europe Society Britain c. 1350 1350 The Perpendicular style develops from the Decorated phase in English Gothic architecture Perpendicular The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms 2 14th century Architecture British architecture British Isles Gothic Europe Britain c. 1350 1350 Water power is used in England for the heavy work of fulling cloth, in mills which can be...

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