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Perpendicular style

Perpendicular style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,289 words
Illustration(s):
1

... style Term used to describe a style of Gothic architecture, peculiar to England, that flourished from the 14th century to the early 16th ( see Gothic architecture , II, 2 ). The term, devised by Thomas Rickman in the early 19th century, covers the style that emerged from designs by the workshop at St Stephen’s Perpendicular style.  Fan vault of Henry VII’s Chapel, Westminster Abbey, London, c. 1503–19. Photo credit: Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY Chapel (after 1292 ) in the Palace of Westminster ( see London , IV, 3(i)(a) ). The essence...

Ramsey, William

Ramsey, William (1349)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013

... see London , IV, 3(i)(c) ). From 1332 he designed the cloister (destr. 1666 ) of Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London, a two-storey building with an inset octagonal chapter house, fitted into a small space on the south side of the nave. The design, which adumbrated the Perpendicular style, incorporated details of French Rayonnant mouldings (possibly seen by Ramsey at Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral) and strong vertical lines similar to those used in the tracery on the exterior of St Stephen’s. A close copy of the St Paul’s cloister design (enlarged one-and-a-half...

Windsor Castle and chapel

Windsor Castle and chapel   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
106 words

...its building in *stone by *William ‘the Conqueror’ . It was expanded and rebuilt c .1344–63 by *Edward III , including a *chapel of St George for his knights of the *Garter . The chapel was magnificently rebuilt by *Edward IV and *Henry VII ( 1473–1507 ) in Perpendicular style. See also art and architecture: gothic . Daniel Williman B. J. W. Hill , Windsor Castle (1972). R. South , The Book of Windsor (1977). N. Williams , Royal Homes ...

art and architecture: Gothic

art and architecture: Gothic   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,460 words

...‘international style’ around 1300 . In the 14th century central Europe and England developed further innovations in architectural design, generating the second international style around 1400 as well as later Gothic styles such as the ‘flamboyant’ and the ‘perpendicular’. 1. Early to High Gothic and Early English ( c .1130– c .1240) 2. Rayonnant Gothic and Decorated Style ( c .1240– c .1350) 3. Late Gothic: flamboyant and perpendicular ( c .1350– c .1500) 1. Early to High Gothic and Early English The first strides toward a Gothic-style architecture were...

Gloucester

Gloucester   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
562 words
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...a revenue of 1430 pounds a year in 1536 ), it possessed one of the finest abbey churches. In essence it was a Romanesque church, whose nave was finished in c. 1160 ; but the choir was enlarged in the 14th c., then the façade, the central tower and especially a great perpendicular-style cloister were added in the 15th century. The chronicler Robert of Gloucester, author of a chronicle relating English History from Brutus to 1270 , of which a dozen manuscripts survive, was probably a monk here at the end of the 13th century. Another chronicle,...

architects, architecture

architects, architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,460 words

...architecture in France may be divided into four periods: Early Gothic ( 1130–90 ), Lancet Gothic ( 1190–1240 ), Rayonnant Gothic ( 1240–1350 ), and Late or Flamboyant Gothic ( 1350–1520 ). Gothic architecture in England is divided into three styles: Early English ( 1200–1275 ), Decorated ( 1300–1375 ), and Perpendicular ( 1400–1575 ). The complexity of structures in Romanesque and Gothic architecture required precise division in craftsmanship. The *masons were trained as stone and brick masons, while other specialists included carpenters, *glass ...

Gothic art

Gothic art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,451 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in forms called “decorated”, at Wells (from 1185 ) or Lincoln ( c. 1192 ). The inventiveness of artists was deployed in spectacular systems of vaulting (transept crossing at Ely) which led in the mid 14th c. to the style called “curvilinear”, whose effects of curves and counter-curves were later contradicted by the perpendicular style, which allowed the opening up of immense bays (Gloucester). One of the first buildings of German Gothic was Magdeburg cathedral ( 1209 ). Opus francigenum penetrated local traditions, asserted itself in the nave of ...

Decorated style

Decorated style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,446 words
Illustration(s):
2

...argued that the Westminster works of the 1290s formed a ‘Court’ school, independent of the Decorated style, which was inspired by French Rayonnant ( see Rayonnant style ) designs and led directly to the development of the Perpendicular style. Decorated, on the other hand, was seen as an English style that occurred only in the provinces. In the ensuing argument, which lasted for a generation and was concerned with the origins of the Perpendicular style, Decorated, regarded as a stylistic dead end, was pushed to the margins, and ‘Court’ art continued to be...

Flamboyant Gothic

Flamboyant Gothic   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
369 words
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... architecture dividing it into different chronological phases, he called the period covering the 15th and early 16th cc. “tertiary Gothic”, giving as synonyms “perpendicular style”, “prismatic style” or “flamboyant Gothic”. This last expression, borrowed from the amateur A. Le Prévost, was unanimously retained by his successors. At present, it is admitted that the last phase of the Gothic style appeared in France early in the reign of Charles VI . But these first experiments slumbered from c. 1400 , when the country was torn by grave internal...

Thomas of Canterbury

Thomas of Canterbury (fl 1323–35)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013

...on the exterior of St Stephen’s were applied to the walls to mask the Romanesque galleries. Elements of French Rayonnant design, notably graduated tracery systems, were combined with the typically Kentish tracery in the south window to produce the earliest work in the Perpendicular style. Bibliography Harvey H. M. Colvin , ed.: The Middle Ages (1963), i and ii of The History of the King’s Works (London, 1963–82) Age of Chivalry: Art in Plantagenet England, 1200–1400 (exh. cat., ed. J. Alexander and P. Binski ; London, RA, 1987), no. 497 C. Wilson :...

Orchard, William

Orchard, William (fl 1468)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013

...Divinity School, have so many points in common that they must be from the same hand. They have pendant drops and both are the epitome of the spiky, sharp-edged 15th-century Oxford style. As Orchard seems to have been the leading Oxford mason of the time, his name has inevitably become associated with these important works. Bibliography Harvey J. Harvey : The Perpendicular Style (London, 1978) [plates] F. Woodman : King’s College Chapel, Cambridge (London, 1986) [plates] ...

Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines

Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...each Apostle and the way in which the architectural elements seemingly dictate human form. The compactness of the design is accentuated by the superficial carving technique. The outlines of the figures are cut perpendicular to the surface plane in shallow relief and details of drapery and physical features appear to be engraved in the stone. Both the style and carving technique of the lintel probably derive from northern Spain: the disposition of the figures imitates that of painted wooden reredoses of this region and the calligraphy of the drapery recalls...

Michael of Canterbury

Michael of Canterbury ( fl 1275–1321)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013

...master mason from 1292 at St Stephen’s Chapel (partly destr), Palace of Westminster. His design for this innovative building, probably intended to rival Louis IX ’s Sainte-Chapelle, reinterpreted elements of the French Rayonnant style in ways that contributed substantially to the evolution of late Decorated and Perpendicular in England. The lower chapel (survives rest.) featured early examples of ogival tracery and lierne vaults, while the wall arcades of the upper chapel were capped by miniature canopies with panels and gablets. Curtains of vertical...

Joy, William

Joy, William (fl1329–47)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...was probably established before Joy’s appointment. Certain stylistic features, however, suggest some revision after c. 1335 : the tram-lined Perpendicular east window and the meshed net vault indicate knowledge of the choir of Gloucester Abbey (now Cathedral; after 1330 ), and would thus belong to his mastership. They also indicate a shift away from West Country-based Decorated traditions towards the new grid-like style associated with London. The dramatic strainer arches in the crossing at Wells Cathedral, with their famous ‘X’ design, may be a response to...

Lewyn, John

Lewyn, John (1364–98)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

.... He and his son Walter rebuilt roads at Brancepeth (Durham) for Ralph, 6th Baron Neville ( 1364–1425 ), and possibly worked on his castle at Raby (Cumbria). Bibliography Harvey S. Toy : The Castles of Great Britain (London, 1953, rev. 3/1963) J. Harvey : The Perpendicular Style (London, 1978) M. Hislop : John Lewyn of Durham: A Medieval Mason in Practice (Oxford, 2007) ...

Janyns

Janyns   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013

...Palace ( 1503–4 ) during the construction of the new chapel (destr.). The design of Henry VII ’s Chapel ( 1506–9 ) in Westminster Abbey has been attributed to Janyns on stylistic grounds ( see under London ). Intended as a shrine to Henry VI , it epitomizes the late Perpendicular style. The internal elevations are similar to those at St George’s Chapel but are even more lavish, and the design of the bay windows of the aisle was first seen in Janyns’s tower at Windsor. The fan vault conceals the greater part of the transverse arches, and the deep tracery...

Gothic

Gothic   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Early english ; Decorated style ; Perpendicular style ), followed soon after by Arcisse de Caumont ( 1801–73 ) in France. Much of the subsequent discussion has been about where the lines of demarcation should be drawn between the several phases, and what causal mechanisms presided over the changes. Nineteenth-century architects and antiquaries, who knew a lot about buildings but not much history, tended to think about style as though it was a living organism, on the analogy of the dominant science of the day, biology. Styles thus evolved from tentative...

William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester

William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester (1324)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
766 words
Illustration(s):
1

...colleges of medieval foundation. Outside the quadrangle stood cloisters, a bell-tower, a tithe-barn, a huge kitchen, and a lavatory that is almost as large. The buildings are in the early Perpendicular style, solid, massive, and well proportioned. Winchester College, intended to supply scholars to New College, was built between 1387 and 1394 and is similar in style to New College. Its plan closely follows that of New College, on a smaller scale and with some modifications; there is no structural antechapel, the position of chapel and hall are reversed and...

Oxford

Oxford   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...too, followed the design of New College, with three or four occupants sharing each chamber. In the Tudor period, the Perpendicular style, first used on a grand scale at New College, dominated the façades of Oxford. Bibliography Harvey An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Oxford , Royal Comm. Anc. & Hist. Mnmts & Constr. England (Oxford, 1939), pp. 84–91 J. Harvey : The Perpendicular Style (London, 1978) G. Jackson-Stops : ‘The Building of the Medieval College’, New College, Oxford , eds. J. Buxton and P....

Gloucester

Gloucester   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,653 words
Illustration(s):
1

...H. Harvey : ‘The Origin of the Perpendicular Style’, Studies in Building History , ed. E. M. Jope (London, 1961), pp. 134–65 H. Bock : Der Decorated Style (Heidelberg, 1962), pp. 64–5, 94–8, 136–9 J. H. Harvey : The Perpendicular Style, 1330–1485 (London, 1978), pp. 78–81 J. Bony : The English Decorated Style: Gothic Architecture Transformed, 1250–1350 (Oxford, 1979) W. C. Leedy : Fan Vaulting: A Study of Form, Technology and Meaning (London, 1980), pp. 166–70 C. Wilson : The Origins of the Perpendicular Style and its Development to Circa...

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