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perpendicular style

perpendicular style   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
71 words

... style [De] A style of architecture found in Britain in the late 14th century ad through to the 16th century ad in which there is a strong emphasis on the vertical elements of construction and decoration. Pointed arches common in earlier centuries are flattened and arches and windows become framed by rectangular outlines. Towers of great height are added to ecclesiastical buildings and ceilings and roofs are often richly...

Perpendicular style

Perpendicular style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,289 words
Illustration(s):
1

... style Term used to describe a style of Gothic architecture, peculiar to England, that flourished from the 14th century to the early 16th ( see Gothic architecture , II, 2 ). The term, devised by Thomas Rickman in the early 19th century, covers the style that emerged from designs by the workshop at St Stephen’s Perpendicular style.  Fan vault of Henry VII’s Chapel, Westminster Abbey, London, c. 1503–19. Photo credit: Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY Chapel (after 1292 ) in the Palace of Westminster ( see London , IV, 3(i)(a) ). The essence...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...with the simple Y‐tracery of the Early English style and the geometric and exuberant designs of the Decorated style during the 13th and early 14th centuries. English styles had until then copied the French, but from the middle years of the 14th century until the Reformation and later a native style known as Perpendicular Gothic was developed. This is named after the perpendicular lines of the mullions in the windows (which were enlarged until they filled all the available space in the walls), but the style includes much more than that, e.g. flat lead...

Horsemanship

Horsemanship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,547 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of horsemanship that was characterized by two basic styles (or “seats”) in medieval mounted warfare, each dependent on the length of the stirrup leather. The styles were discussed in Iberian horsemanship treatises of the fifteenth century, as for example King Duarte I of Portugal, Livro da ensinança de bem cavalgar toda sela (Book of Instruction on Riding Well in All Saddles, 1438 ), but the realities of these styles were present much earlier. The Spanish term a la jineta referred to the style of the Muslims of al-Andalus, who rode with short...

Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)

Courtyard Houses (Siheyuan)   Reference library

Ronald G. KNAPP

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... siheyuan , the main hall, called a zhengtang , is a low, south-facing, single-story building on the northern side of the courtyard. Within this building the senior generation resides, with space for entertaining guests and family. Bedrooms and studies are also found here. Perpendicular to the main structure is a pair of flanking buildings, one facing east and the other west, normally used to house married sons and their families. An important element of Beijing siheyuan is the set of narrow covered verandas that serve as all-weather passageways around the...

Shang Dynasty

Shang Dynasty (1766 bce–1045 bce)   Reference library

Dallas L. McCURLEY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...tributes from surrounding polities, and many other things. The divinatory method was to apply a hot poker to hollows carved into the bones, causing roughly T-shaped cracks to appear on the opposite side. The king interpreted these according to the degree of angle between perpendicular and cross-bar, and uttered a prognostication based on the divination’s verdict. Following this, the day of the divination, the name of the diviner, the questions asked by the diviner, and the king’s final verdict were inscribed on the bone or plastron, which was stored away...

Perpendicular architecture

Perpendicular architecture   Reference library

T. E. Faulkner

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
449 words

...), with its remarkable pendant-vaulted roof, is another excellent example. Quintessentially Perpendicular is King’s College chapel , Cambridge ( 1447–1515 ), where the new, more open concept of space and light is seen to advantage in a building almost like an elaborate cage of glass and stone. This had later parallels in the development of domestic architecture during the Tudor period, as at Hardwick Hall , Derbyshire (‘more glass than wall’). The Perpendicular style seems to have originated in the remodelling of the choir and east end of Gloucester cathedral...

Oxford, St Mary the Virgin

Oxford, St Mary the Virgin   Reference library

A. S. Hargreaves

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
105 words

...centre of the fledgling medieval university, St Mary’s was the seat of its government, academic disputation, and award of degrees until the mid-17th cent.; the attached Old Congregation House ( c. 1320 ) contained the first university library. Considerably rebuilt in the perpendicular style, it hosted the trials of the Oxford martyrs ( Latimer , Ridley , Cranmer ) in 1554–6 , gained the Laudian ‘Virgin porch’ whose Marian statue so incensed the puritans, heard Wesley and Newman preach, and saw the launch of the ‘Oxford’ or ‘tractarian’ movement for...

Pugin, Augustus Welby

Pugin, Augustus Welby (1812–52)   Reference library

Bernard Porter

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
199 words

...Christian—by which he meant Roman catholic—style. His book Contrasts ( 1836 ) set drawings of medieval buildings beside drawings of their modern—square, crude, simple—equivalents, in order to show how much more attractive the former were. It was grossly unfair, but influential. Pugin was commissioned to put his set-square where his mouth was all over the country. Alton Towers ( 1836 ), Scarisbrick Hall ( 1837 ), the catholic cathedrals of Birmingham ( 1841 ) and Newcastle ( 1844 ), and the lush Perpendicular-style detailing of the new Houses of Parliament...

Gloucester, diocese of

Gloucester, diocese of   Reference library

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
200 words

...tradition of puritanism, which became a target for both James I and Laud . James Monk ( 1830–56 ) was a vigorous bishop, who did much to improve the finances of livings. The Norman cathedral, previously St Peter’s Benedictine abbey church, was partly transformed in perpendicular style, reputedly the earliest example, by the inflow of money from pilgrims to the shrine of Edward II . The tomb of Robert of Normandy , William I ’s eldest son, who died in Cardiff castle, is also there. The 14th-cent. fan-vaulted cloisters are among the finest in England....

Ramsey, William

Ramsey, William (1349)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... see London , IV, 3(i)(c) ). From 1332 he designed the cloister (destr. 1666 ) of Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London, a two-storey building with an inset octagonal chapter house, fitted into a small space on the south side of the nave. The design, which adumbrated the Perpendicular style, incorporated details of French Rayonnant mouldings (possibly seen by Ramsey at Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral) and strong vertical lines similar to those used in the tracery on the exterior of St Stephen’s. A close copy of the St Paul’s cloister design (enlarged one-and-a-half...

Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture   Reference library

T. E. Faulkner

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
522 words

...( c. 1180–1270 ); ‘Decorated’ ( c. 1270–1370 ); ‘Perpendicular’ ( c. 1350–1550 ). The first of these has an austere purity, as in the examples of early Gothic mentioned above, and utilizes the simple, ‘lancet’ window type (e.g. the ‘five sisters’ window in the north transept of York minster, c. 1250 ). The ‘Decorated’ is marked by intricate vaulting and window tracery (as in the nave of Exeter cathedral, 1328–42 , and the early 14th-cent. east window at Carlisle); and the uniquely English ‘Perpendicular’ by even more elaborate vaulting, and ever-larger...

architecture

architecture   Reference library

T. E. Faulkner

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,333 words

...was replaced by ‘Norman’; this was, in effect, a version of the European Romanesque style, with fine ashlar masonry, heavy columns, and round arches. The Normans built castles and cathedrals which were not only centres of power in their own right, but symbolized the cultural and political superiority of the new regime. The Gothic style flourished from c. 1200 to the early 16th cent., with many uniquely British developments such as the late ‘Perpendicular’ phase. Further potential development along Gothic lines was curtailed by Henry VIII’s ...

῾Ein-Zippori, Tel

῾Ein-Zippori, Tel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
786 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Iron II. Stratum II (tenth century bce ) contained a large, well-constructed, multiroomed building in field I that has been partially excavated ( see figure 1 ). The complex (at least 11 × 15 m) is oriented northeast-southwest, with two primary interior dividing walls perpendicular to each other. One interior wall carries a stone bench along its northern face. Both walls have well-hewn stones as door jambs. The complex has two building phases. The destruction debris found within the complex included a great deal of burned mud brick. In field II a series...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,073 words

...England was well supplied with parish churches, cathedrals, and monasteries by the beginning of the sixteenth century. The Perpendicular Gothic style, which had come into use about 1350 , was unique to England, although it had some similarities to Flamboyant Gothic in France. English Perpendicular buildings were characterized by large windows, divided into sections by stone tracery bars meeting each other at perpendicular angles. Cathedrals and the most elaborate parish churches had fan-vaulted ceilings of stone, while the usual church had a timber...

῾Izbet Ṣarṭah

῾Izbet Ṣarṭah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,210 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ASOR Archives) At the center of the settlement a large, four-room house (16 × 12 m) was preserved up to three courses of stone with outer walls as much as 1.4 m thick. Three long, connecting rooms were separated by two rows of stone pillars. An enclosed room was situated perpendicular to them along the south wall. The floors of the side rooms were made out of stone slabs; the rest were of bedrock or beaten earth. The only entrance was at the northern end of the long western wall, and a small room was attached to the house at its north-west corner ( see ...

Contracts

Contracts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...in narrow horizontal strips from the top down to the end of the upper copy, tied with string looped and knotted at several points, and in at least one case (deed of sale Mur 29) sealed. Witnesses affixed their signatures on the back of the sheet, one next to each of the ties, perpendicular to the direction of the writing of the text on the front. The bottom copy would be similarly folded in horizontal strips from the bottom up, but neither tied nor sealed. The two copies are known, therefore, as the inner and outer (in 5/6Ḥev 12.3: en tois exoterois ) copies,...

Anchors

Anchors   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,249 words
Illustration(s):
3

...about anchor arm construction with the discovery of a fragmentary anchor on the Chrétienne “C” wreck (Joncheray, 1975 ). Arms were bound fastened to anchor shanks with Z-shaped hook joints that were, in turn, secured by mortise-and-tenon joints (figure 3.5). Pegs placed perpendicularly through tenons in anchor arms locked them in position. When arm/shank joints loosened with wear, reinforcement collars (figure 3.4) poured onto anchors held the anchor arms in position (Haldane, 1986 ). Pliny records cork floats on lines used to mark an anchor's location on...

Building Materials and Techniques

Building Materials and Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
17,911 words
Illustration(s):
10

...architectural province. Well-known monuments evidencing this style are the Khazne tomb facade at Petra and the Colonnaded Palace at Ptolemais in Cyrenaica, both difficult to date and assigned anywhere between later first century bce to second century ce . This illustrates that the style survived the establishment of Roman rule in some regions and probably was only supplanted by the imperial organized “prefabricated marble” style of the second century onward. The Alexandrian style was light and graceful and may be thought of as ancient Rococo. It was...

Furniture and Furnishings

Furniture and Furnishings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
10,489 words
Illustration(s):
7

... Malku's wife (Malku was an important Palmyrene) sits on a cathedra . From the end of the second century ce , a Palmyran relief shows the goddess Leto seated on a similar basket chair. The cathedra was also used as a litter for the wealthy. Two types of stools, one with perpendicular legs and a second with folding legs, are known from the classical Greek world and continued to be used commonly in the Roman period. One of the few existing examples of a Roman-period stool is represented by a wooden leg excavated at Rifeh, Egypt. A cross-legged stool with a...

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