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Time and Timekeeping, Roman

Time and Timekeeping, Roman   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
890 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Egypt; their use likely spread to Rome from there via Greece. Vitruvius describes a variety of designs for both (9.7–8). Roman Sundial . Timgad, Algeria. © Gerard Degeorge/The Bridgeman Art Library A Roman sundial ( horologium or solarium ) consisted of a style, also known as a gnomon, perpendicular to a convex or flat field on which it cast its shadow; the field was marked so that the direction or length of the shadow indicated the daylight hours. Surviving portable Roman and Byzantine sundials are adjustable for month and latitude to give a close...

Stoa

Stoa   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,371 words
Illustration(s):
1

...bc ), were very large. The use of stoas to frame specific areas also developed at this time. Thus, at Olympia the large Echo Stoa ( c. 970×11.5 m), begun c. 350 bc but completed much later, defined the eastern edge of the Sanctuary of Zeus, with its axis almost perpendicular to those of the two main temples. This function is especially evident in Ionia , for example in the agoras at Priene and Miletos , which were begun in the 4th century bc but not completed until Hellenistic times. The Hellenistic period ( c. 323–27 bc ) was the great age...

Pompeii

Pompeii   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
11,282 words
Illustration(s):
9

...Third Styles) or are embellished with ornamental strips and fields arranged concentrically or endlessly repeated (in the Third and Fourth Styles). As early as the Second Style interior rooms display vistas of gardens or landscapes animated by mythological figures, each framed by architectural features. Central paintings with landscapes containing mythological scenes in miniature format are a speciality of the Third Style. A number of the preceding elements are brought together in a style transitional between the Third and Fourth Styles. In the Fourth Style small...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
9,762 words

...on a steep hillside, and its plan has an axial design that led the visitor from the town below to the sanctuary of the goddess at the top. At the bottom is a vast retaining wall, and the terraces above are supported in part by the hillside, in part by barrel vaults placed perpendicularly to the slope to support and extend the available horizontal area. Access is granted by means of two inclined, covered ramps leading to a landing with colonnaded porticoes and two semicircular alcoves (exedrae) placed symmetrically on either side of a central flight of steps....

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

...can be seen in the Baths of Neptune at Ostia (early 2nd century ad ), or the baths at Glanum (Saint- Rémy de Provence; late 1st century bc ). In the Western provinces a variation on this plan developed, with the bathing rooms following an axial sequence but running perpendicular to the palaestra, sometimes with the addition of a number of circular rooms for various purposes. Examples of the former can be seen at Champlieu ( c. ad 200 ), and of the latter at Conimbriga in Portugal ( ad 1–14 , enlarged ad 105–15 ). Smaller baths, particularly...

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