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Perpendicular style

Perpendicular style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,123 words

... style . Term used to describe a style of Gothic architecture, peculiar to England, that flourished from the 14th century to the early 16th. The term, devised by Thomas Rickman, covers the style that emerged from designs by the workshop at St Stephen's Chapel (after 1292 ) in the Palace of Westminster. The essence of Perpendicular is regularity: straight lines or crystalline shapes, a thin and transparent structure exploiting stained glass on the inner surface, monochrome building materials, modular repetition and a fineness of detail almost...

Perpendicular style

Perpendicular style   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,289 words
Illustration(s):
1

... style Term used to describe a style of Gothic architecture, peculiar to England, that flourished from the 14th century to the early 16th ( see Gothic architecture , II, 2 ). The term, devised by Thomas Rickman in the early 19th century, covers the style that emerged from designs by the workshop at St Stephen’s Perpendicular style.  Fan vault of Henry VII’s Chapel, Westminster Abbey, London, c. 1503–19. Photo credit: Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY Chapel (after 1292 ) in the Palace of Westminster ( see London , IV, 3(i)(a) ). The essence...

Ramsey, William

Ramsey, William (1349)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... see London , IV, 3(i)(c) ). From 1332 he designed the cloister (destr. 1666 ) of Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London, a two-storey building with an inset octagonal chapter house, fitted into a small space on the south side of the nave. The design, which adumbrated the Perpendicular style, incorporated details of French Rayonnant mouldings (possibly seen by Ramsey at Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral) and strong vertical lines similar to those used in the tracery on the exterior of St Stephen’s. A close copy of the St Paul’s cloister design (enlarged one-and-a-half...

Reinhardt, Ad

Reinhardt, Ad (1913)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,416 words
Illustration(s):
1

...relationships among lines and planes forming a dynamic “system.” The idealist and utopian construal of concrete form similarly holds true in Mondrian's scheme of things, for, having penetrated nature, abstraction has achieved the “expression of relationships” exclusively. Perpendicularity expresses the “one permanent relationship,” attaining, as it does, an equilibrium of spirit with matter, active with passive, male with female, truth with beauty. Reinhardt will assume the mantle of this aesthetic. By the late 1940s, he will have adapted a version of...

Farrukh Chela

Farrukh Chela (fl. c.1580–c.1604)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
483 words

...court, Farrukh Chela must have been fully trained in the given style when he entered the imperial studio, yet he retained his personal style, including highly finished architecture with dry modeling; a deep landscape with rocky vistas, usually of boulders punctuated with hairy plants or shrubs; and in later stages a deep ink-blue strip as sky, other colors ranging from brick red to a pale mauve. He typically divided space in horizontal platform-like plateaux, sometimes with perpendicular drops and vertical, regular, panel-like shading. His human figures...

Gothic Revival

Gothic Revival   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,387 words

...in this respect, not least by categorizing the development of medieval styles into Norman, Early-English, Decorated, and Perpendicular, and helping to distinguish between the Romanesque and the Gothic. This Gothic Revival was a genuinely pan-European movement, with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ( 1749–1842 ) wanting to substitute the term ‘German’ for ‘Gothic’ and the French politician François-René de Chateaubriand ( 1768–1848 ) celebrating the contributions of his own nation to the style in his Génie du Christianisme ( 1802 ). Much of the early 19th century...

Tughra

Tughra   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
996 words

...the letters nūn and sīn . Under the Ottomans the tughra was used only in documents sent from the capital to the provinces. High officials, who sometimes used a similarly shaped monogram of their own, did not put it at the top of the document but rather on the right margin, perpendicular to the text. The earliest Ottoman tughras were rather simple, written in black or gold ink. During the reign of Selim I ( r. 1512–20 ), blue ink outlined in gold or blue on a gold ground became fashionable, and fine spiral and arabesque designs filled the curves. Towards the...

Tunis

Tunis   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,025 words

..., Tunis became second city of the region. The Zaytuna (“Olive tree”) Mosque, founded in 732 , was rebuilt between 856 and 864 by Abu Ibrahim Ahmad , sixth ruler of the Aghlabid dynasty ( r. 800–909 ; see Architecture , §IV, C ). The prayer-hall has 15 aisles perpendicular to the qibla; the wide central aisle is surmounted by two cupolas, a gadrooned one ( 864 ) over the bay before the mihrab and another with polychrome decoration (11th century) facing the court. The trapezoidal court was lined at a later date with an arcaded gallery, and the...

Stoa

Stoa   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,371 words
Illustration(s):
1

...bc ), were very large. The use of stoas to frame specific areas also developed at this time. Thus, at Olympia the large Echo Stoa ( c. 970×11.5 m), begun c. 350 bc but completed much later, defined the eastern edge of the Sanctuary of Zeus, with its axis almost perpendicular to those of the two main temples. This function is especially evident in Ionia , for example in the agoras at Priene and Miletos , which were begun in the 4th century bc but not completed until Hellenistic times. The Hellenistic period ( c. 323–27 bc ) was the great age...

Kairouan

Kairouan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,275 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 817–38 ). Additional work was completed in 862 in the reign of Abu Ibrahim Ahmad . The mosque is a roughly rectangular structure with maximum interior dimensions of 122×70 m; it has a court surrounded by arcades and a hypo style prayer-hall occupying about one-third of the surface area. The prayer-hall, which has 17 aisles perpendicular to the qibla wall, has domes at either end of the wider central aisle. One stands over the bay in front of the mihrab, and the other abuts the courtyard. The colonnades of the central aisle were doubled in the later 9th...

Pompeii

Pompeii   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
11,282 words
Illustration(s):
9

...Third Styles) or are embellished with ornamental strips and fields arranged concentrically or endlessly repeated (in the Third and Fourth Styles). As early as the Second Style interior rooms display vistas of gardens or landscapes animated by mythological figures, each framed by architectural features. Central paintings with landscapes containing mythological scenes in miniature format are a speciality of the Third Style. A number of the preceding elements are brought together in a style transitional between the Third and Fourth Styles. In the Fourth Style small...

Palace

Palace   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
3,523 words
Illustration(s):
1

...while the horizontal expanse of Madinat al-Zahra , the 10th-century palace–city of the Spanish Umayyad dynasty ( r. 756–1031 ) outside Córdoba ( see Architecture , fig. 26 ), may have been inspired by the palaces of Samarra. Throughout the western Islamic lands the perpendicular juxtaposition of two rectangular halls was a characteristic unit that eventually evolved into the inverted T-plan reception room, evident for example at the Alhambra ( see Granada , §III, 1 ). The most famous and best-preserved palace in the Islamic west, the Alhambra is...

Irish art

Irish art   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,985 words

...a fine fake Perpendicular tracery ceiling with pendant drops. Many Catholic churches are by Pugin and his son. Typical of the grander, serious type of Gothic Revival churches are the magnificent pair in Cork. The Catholic one is by the younger Pugin, of 1868–79 , in a style reminiscent of Coutances in Normandy, and the Anglican one is by Burges, 1865–79 , with three towers and spires, the central one 240 ft. high; it is probably the most splendid church in Ireland. But nothing of the ancient artistic quality has surfaced over the imported styles, nor been...

Woodwork

Woodwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
15,790 words
Illustration(s):
10

...placed. The side panels for minbars were usually made with interlocking pieces. Tongue-edged lozenges, octagons and stars carved with arabesques are joined by grooved frames without glue or pins, a technique known in Turkish as kündekâri . The pieces were set with the grain perpendicular to the grain of the frame to prevent warping, and the joined panels were further supported on a wooden substructure. Earlier examples such as the minbars from the mosque of Alaeddin in Konya ( 1155–6 ) and the congregational mosques of Siirt and Malatya (both 13th century;...

Gothic art and architecture

Gothic art and architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
7,068 words

...by Anglo-Saxon and Norman art and architecture . The High Middle Ages ( c .1000–1300) in Britain begins with Early English Gothic from 1180 to 1275 (Rickman) or 1307 (Pevsner), and is followed in the Late Middle Ages ( c .1300–1500) by Decorated Gothic ( 1275–1380 ) and Perpendicular ( 1380–1520 ) which continues until the beginning of the Renaissance. By extension, though less accurately, the other arts produced within the same time-span came to be given the same names. The ease with which this period could be consigned to lesser status was clearly due to...

Reinhardt, Ad

Reinhardt, Ad (1913–1967)   Reference library

Marjorie Welish

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,468 words
Illustration(s):
1

...relationships among lines and planes forming a dynamic “system.” The idealist and utopian construal of concrete form similarly holds true in Mondrian’s scheme of things, for, having penetrated nature, abstraction has achieved the “expression of relationships” exclusively. Perpendicularity expresses the “one permanent relationship,” attaining, as it does, an equilibrium of spirit with matter, active with passive, male with female, truth with beauty. Reinhardt will assume the mantle of this aesthetic. By the late 1940s, he will have adapted a version of...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
117,015 words
Illustration(s):
77

...palmettes and fleurons in the Almohad style and a square stone minaret decorated with lozenge-net panels and topped by a lantern crowned with a pyramid of green tiles. The building remains faithful to local principles in its massing, use of stone, prayer-hall roofed with groin vaults resting on columns and vertical grooves decorating the mihrab niche. The Hawa Mosque, founded in the suburbs of Tunis by Abu Zakariya's widow, the princess ῾Atf, has an oblong prayer-hall divided into seven aisles of six bays perpendicular to the qibla. The 42 square bays are...

Jerusalem

Jerusalem   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,763 words
Illustration(s):
2

...19 sq. m of covered area was added to the north, and the interior space was articulated more boldly. The mosque acquired its distinctive many-naved form, with a raised and wider central gable and, unusually, a dome over the second bay in front of the mihrab. The aisles were perpendicular to the qibla wall; their length necessitated a clerestory for adequate lighting. No courtyard was necessary because of the presence of the Haram to the north. Leading into the sanctuary, a triple gateway, with three central arches larger than those on either side, was the...

Romanesque art and architecture

Romanesque art and architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
11,116 words

...façades, those of St-Étienne now crowned by beautiful Gothic spires. The severity of the façade of St-Étienne, with its rows of tall round-headed windows, are what English Romanesque church façades were probably like before the almost universal intrusion into them of huge Perpendicular Gothic traceried windows. The three tiers of choir windows in La Trinité are also found at the very damaged Cerisy-la-Forêt, near Bayeux. Lessay, N. of Coutances, founded from Bec, was built between about 1030 and 1091 on the normal Cluniac design of Bernay, with a long nave,...

Military architecture and fortification

Military architecture and fortification   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
10,258 words
Illustration(s):
4

...are again pierced by archery openings and defended by loopholed brattices on stone consoles. Topped by a crenellated parapet and wall-walk, the high curtains have square salients and several gates. Some of the Mamluk gates are flanked by pairs of towers, and the passage is perpendicular to the face of the curtain; others, such as the 15th century Bab Qinnasrin, open in the side of a tower parallel to the curtain and make an angle into the city. The Ayyubid citadel (Arab. qal῾a ) was likewise restored after the Mongol devastations. With the shifting of the...

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