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permanent establishment

Most tax treaties operate so that business profits are taxed in the country of the taxpayer’s residence, unless the taxpayer has a ‘permanent establishment’ in the other territory. In the ...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

..., and twenty c .1800 . A few provincial presses (Elsinore, Sorø, Aarhus, and Odense) operated for short periods, but provincial *printing offices were not established on a more permanent basis until the 1730s , when they often centred on a local newspaper. In 1643 , Tyge Nielsen came to Christiania (Oslo) as Norway’s first printer. This was the only Norwegian town with a permanent printing office until printing began in Bergen ( 1721 ), followed by Trondheim ( 1739 ); many authors on the west coast continued to use Copenhagen presses. The Danish and...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...(the Secretary of State, two permanent under‐secretaries, a dozen clerks, and ‘various cleaning and janitorial staff’). ‘The size of the office was reflected in the quality of its administration. It did not, indeed, could not, administer programmes or policies: it dealt with individuals’ ( C. Emsley , ‘The Home Office and its Sources of Information and Investigation’, English Historical Review , 94 ( 1979 ), 532). Or, as Professor Eastwood has written, it monitored and advised. By comparison, in 1690 the excise establishment had 1 313 employees and by ...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...deploring the ‘eternal treacherous behaviour’ of his Bengali assistants (Shaw, Printing , 24–5 ). Two events in 1800 were to have a momentous effect on printing in south and southeast Asia. The first was the establishment in Calcutta of the Fort William College to train the British civilians of the East India Company. The second was the establishment of a Baptist mission at Serampore (25 km from Calcutta) by William *Carey , an ex-cobbler, who arrived at Calcutta in 1793 . His first few years in India were spent in Malda, working for an indigo planter, and...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,196 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...commercial fairs and a civic elite active in the import and export business. Castile’s commercial prosperity and the growth of its governmental administration and universities ensured that printing became a permanent industry. The Catholic Monarchs’ legal measures to stimulate printing and the book trade were potent weapons in their establishment. Printers’ exemption from military service and the reduction of taxes on book imports served to encourage the book trade and turn it into an attractive mercantile sector. These measures also included incentives...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...seems to have been more common in Britain than in continental Europe, where the tradition of issuing books in paper wrappers, to be bound to a customer’s specification, continued well into the 20 th century. Before the 19 th century, binderies were typically small establishments run by a master with a handful of assistants (who might be apprentices, journeymen, or members of his family; women were often involved in some of the operations, such as folding and sewing). In France, there was a recognized distinction between forwarders ( relieurs ) and...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...early as 1475 ); at Rouen in 1485 ; at Abbeville in 1486 ; at Orléans and Grenoble in 1490 ; at Angoulême and Narbonne in 1491 . Save for a few ephemeral undertakings, like the one Jehan de Rohan ran in his Breton château of Bréhant-Loudéac in 1484–5 , most were permanent establishments. Leaving aside the Alsatian region, which was politically and culturally part of the Germanic world, there were presses in about 30 French cities by 1500 . Lyons was not a university town but a major commercial centre with frequent contacts with northern Italy and...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,036 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ended up making financial losses, for it was difficult to oversee the work and few products could be sold. In the second decade of the 18th century the Society for the Propagation (later Promotion) of Christian Knowledge (SPCK), founded in 1698 , began a campaign for the establishment of workhouses in market towns and the larger rural parishes up and down the country under managers who would employ the poor in useful work. In 1723 an Act gave belated recognition to this movement, authorizing the combination of parishes, if necessary, and empowering vestry...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,202 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the practice of appointing standing chairmen of the Commission, instead of annual chairmen or chairmen for individual sessions. The appearance of permanent chairmen (e.g. in Oxfordshire in 1771 , Shropshire in 1785 ) permitted the appearance of capable administrators and administrative continuity. A number of county chairmen made reputations as innovators in organization of the Commission with the establishment of subcommittees to act on specific areas of government. And rather like the zealous magistrates of the early 17th century, some chairmen set out to...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...writers saw as determinants of an Agricultural Revolution after 1750 have been dated to much earlier periods. In The Agricultural Revolution ( 1967 ) Eric Kerridge argued that the floating of water‐ meadows , the substitution of convertible husbandry for permanent tillage and permanent grass or for shifting cultivation, the introduction of new fallow and other crops, roots, and selected grasses, fen drainage, manuring, and stock breeding were practices that could be dated to the 16th and 17th centuries. Other historians have agreed on the dating...

2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,978 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...marks of existence: (1) impermanence due to the cycle of causation that creates a constant state of flux; (2) suffering; (3) non-self. Since everything within the world is subject to the cycle of causation, there is nothing within the empirical realm that is permanent. Moreover, there is nothing permanent about the self, ego, or soul to which humans can cling. The Buddha’s basic teaching is that it is important to cut out our love of self, which functions as a means of keeping us confined to this realm of suffering, cyclic causation, ignorance, rebirth, and...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...values as the basis for the construction of a distinctive Irish identity in the modern world. Therefore, within this colonial context, the Irish past never entered totally into history, because it never passed fully out of politics. This quickening of interest encouraged the establishment of libraries, the publication of source materials (especially in translation), and the detailed mapping, recording, and collection of antiquities. By the 1870s a national museum, a national library, and a record office had all been established, and Ireland also possessed a...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and it is true that the state in 1688 restored the old pattern of chartered and unchartered towns in all their variety, and that no major changes were made until the 19th century. However, piecemeal improvements under Acts of Parliament were numerous, especially in the establishment of improvement commissions from 1725 ; these enjoyed wide powers to raise money and to provide services, and in consequence corporate towns acquired a valuable supplementary authority, while unincorporated towns acquired a vital means of self‐government. As a result,...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...in the copying and selling of more functional academic texts. The new impetus was also felt in the northern Netherlands, which for a long time had lagged behind the far more prosperous south. Under the influence of the spiritual renewal of the *Devotio Moderna and the establishment of the court of the Counts of Holland in The Hague, a remarkable regional flowering occurred. In their striving for piety and spirituality, the Devotionalists attached great value to reading and writing and were very active in copying MSS—for their own use as well as on...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...maps, using copper *plates , and probably techniques, imported from Vienna: the earliest extant map is dated 1719/20 . This was part of a programme of Westernizing innovations in the Ottoman capital which also led, less than ten years later, to the establishment of Müteferrika’s famous book-printing establishment, complete with Arabic types cut and cast locally and modelled on the neat Ottoman naskhī bookhand of the period. The first book, an Arabic–Turkish *Dictionary , was printed in 1729 in 500 copies and was followed by sixteen others in Ottoman...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...trade for generations, such as the Greens of New England and the Bradfords of Pennsylvania and New York. For lack of manufacturing in the colonies, they imported their capital goods (presses, *type , *composing sticks , and other materials) and even their paper, until the establishment of America’s first *paper mill outside Philadelphia in 1690 . Far from London, some Boston and Cambridge printers produced their own *almanacs and other cheap books as early as 1640 , when the *Bay Psalm Book became the first book printed in British North America. One...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...As John Landseer ( 1769–1852 ) put it in an 1834 catalogue of the National Gallery, the institution was designed to be ‘permanent and perennial, so that the public mind may there luxuriate and dwell, and reflect upon, or at its pleasure, revisit, what is there reposited’. At the same time as the project of the National Gallery was being pursued, London saw the emergence of a number of commercial, promotional art galleries—permanent collections of paintings originally commissioned for a specific publication and displayed in purpose-built galleries to...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies under Henry Bathurst ( 1762–1834 ), the first Secretary for War and Colonies to take a close interest in colonial affairs. Further bureaucratic recognition of the importance of colonial affairs came with the establishment of a Permanent Under-Secretary in 1825 . Between 1836 and 1847 this office was held by Sir James Stephen ( 1789–1859 ), under whom the Colonial Office was put on a firm organizational footing and rendered an effective instrument in advancing representative government and in...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...according to classical precedent. Boulton saw his factory as a ‘Temple of the Vulcanian Arts’. Besides manufacturing toys and Sheffield plate on a large scale, he started in the late 1760s to produce high-quality ormolu and silverware, the latter greatly stimulated by the establishment of an Assay Office in Birmingham in 1773 , largely through his efforts. Wedgwood named his new factory ‘Etruria’, on the generally but mistakenly held belief that the Etruscans made the finest antique vases. By selling ‘Vases, Urns and other ornaments after the Etruscan,...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...but made even more galling by the work's extraordinary scale and long period of gestation—left the artist badly out of pocket. They also came to confirm Barry's increasing self-mythologization as a lone artist fighting heroically against a corrupted and unsympathetic artistic establishment. The kind of self-mythologization, which offered an embittered mirror-image of more dominant narratives of artistic celebrity, was to be shared by William Blake . But while the Society of Artists paintings stood as monolithic testaments to Barry's genius, Blake exalted...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the millenarian restoration of an ancient Jewish constitution and homeland. They also saw the ‘Jubilee Day’ expounded in Leviticus 25, when Moses dramatically freed the slaves and restored the alienated lands of the Hebrew tribes, as a loose revolutionary model for the re-establishment in Britain of a democratic, smallholder, agrarian republic. Many *Spenceans thus sought, in the manner of Blake, to bring about the advent of a new Jerusalem in England's ‘green and pleasant land’. Spencean utopias were scarcely disguised manifestos for revolutionary...

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