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Overview

peace establishment

The authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in peacetime.

peace establishment

peace establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... establishment the authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,202 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the JPs. They were crown appointees named to a panel, the Commission of the Peace, for each county. By 1603 some 71 Commissions were issued, 55 for English and Welsh counties (Wales receiving Commissions only when shired in 1543 ), nine for liberties , and seven for boroughs . A number of towns were exempt from the county Commissions, and were governed by their mayor and aldermen sitting ex officio as justices. Each Commission was supported by a clerk of the peace. Magistrates were in the beginning, and always remained, unsalaried (although they...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in 1690 the excise establishment had 1 313 employees and by 1779 it had 5 778, but by 1783 this had been reduced to 4 910 ( J. Brewer , The Sinews of Power ( 1989 ), table 4.1). Other than its excise men, central government had no salaried officials in the counties. It therefore relied on its local correspondents to bring matters to its notice. These informers were mostly Justices of the Peace , over whom the centre had little real control. Government could select the individuals to be named to the Commission of the Peace; but it could not ensure...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,036 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ended up making financial losses, for it was difficult to oversee the work and few products could be sold. In the second decade of the 18th century the Society for the Propagation (later Promotion) of Christian Knowledge (SPCK), founded in 1698 , began a campaign for the establishment of workhouses in market towns and the larger rural parishes up and down the country under managers who would employ the poor in useful work. In 1723 an Act gave belated recognition to this movement, authorizing the combination of parishes, if necessary, and empowering vestry...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...; the only provincial guild was that of Nagoya, which was recognized in 1798 . The shogunal government was not enthusiastic about the establishment of trade guilds, but perceived them to be a necessary evil in order to limit the scope for *copyright disputes. Until the late 19 th century, copyright lay with publishers, not with authors, and the most common cause of legal disputes was copyright infringement. The establishment of guilds reduced the number of cases within any one publishing centre, but did not stop disputes between publishers in different...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...were already doing. What made the difference was his authority as a nobleman, as an editor, and as an author, who in 1539 received a cardinal’s hat, in modern parlance ‘for services to literature’. Bembo and his fellow theorists were not, however, concerned with whether the establishment of a single written norm would lead to a unified spoken language. That process would not occur for another four centuries, when other media were introduced. The application of a Tuscan norm based on the literature of the Trecento (i.e. writers of whom the youngest was 30 years...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as ‘a popular though far less useful application of the Institution’. The expenditure of public funds on creating and maintaining collections that were predominantly scientific and ethnographic in nature was not welcomed by connoisseurs and artists whose first desire was the establishment of a National Gallery of Art. The notion of a gallery that could educate artists, impress foreigners, and definitively answer the aspersions cast against the taste of the British public, had been advanced periodically through the century. However, development of a national...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...example of France after 1789 added a powerful element of anxiety to such claims. From the early summer of 1792 , when the first Royal Proclamation Against Seditious Writings was issued and prosecution against Paine's Rights of Man: Part the Second was inaugurated, the establishment suffered recurrent bouts of anxiety about the prospect of a political and social revolution. These anxieties were not groundless, nor should we dismiss the loyalists' campaign as mere rhetoric. Many experienced the spread of popular radical literature as deeply threatening,...

China-Japan Peace and Friendship Treaty

China-Japan Peace and Friendship Treaty  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1978)An agreement between China and Japan aimed at closer political and economic cooperation. Post-war Japanese foreign policy was characterized by a tension between dependence on the USA and ...
Fourteen Points

Fourteen Points  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(8 January 1918)A US peace programme for a just settlement at the end of World War I contained in President Woodrow Wilson's address to Congress. They comprised freedom of the seas, equality of trade ...
county

county  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The county (otherwise the shire) was the main unit of provincial government in England from before the Norman Conquest until modern times. Domesday Book (1086) describes 32 shires. Five of these were ...
Colombia

Colombia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A country in the extreme north-west of the South American continent, the only South American country with coasts on both the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans, separated by the isthmus of Panama. To ...
Arab League

Arab League  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
An organization of Arab states, founded in Cairo, Egypt in 1945. The principal aims of the League are to protect the independence and sovereignty of its members and to strengthen the ties between ...
asylums

asylums  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
For the insane had medieval origins in Britain, with London's Bethlem Hospital (Bedlam) the most famous. Its shortened name passed into the language as befitted a frame of mind in which madness was ...
inns

inns  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
[MC]An establishment which provided food, drink, stabling, and, usually, accommodation for travellers. Inns commonly stand along main highways and in market towns.
isolationism

isolationism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
An approach to US foreign policy that advocates non-participation in alliances or in the affairs of other nations. It derives its spirit from George Washington's proclamation of neutrality in 1793, ...
Konoe Fumimaro

Konoe Fumimaro  

(b. 12 Oct. 1891, d. 16 Dec. 1945).Prime Minister of Japan 1937–9, 1940–1He entered politics as a member of the House of Peers in 1916. A member of the aristocracy, Konoe gave his support to the ...
Royal Ulster Constabulary

Royal Ulster Constabulary  

(RUC).Created under the terms of the Constabulary Act (1922) as a police force for Northern Ireland, the RUC was modelled on the Royal Irish Constabulary (which was disbanded in 1922), being armed ...
Oslo Accords

Oslo Accords  

(Aug. – Sept. 1993)After months of secret negotiations sponsored by the Norwegian government, between representatives of the PLO and Israel, this was the breakthrough in the quest for a comprehensive ...
Wang Ching-wei

Wang Ching-wei  

1883–1944)Chinese revolutionary. A hero of the 1911 Chinese revolution, he was branded a traitor for his collaboration with the Japanese during World War II and his political vacillation.Born in ...

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