You are looking at 1-20 of 1,105 entries  for:

  • All: peace establishment x
clear all

View:

Overview

peace establishment

The authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in peacetime.

peace establishment

peace establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... establishment the authorized size, composition, and organization of a nation's armed forces in...

Japanese–Soviet campaigns and relations, 1939–45

Japanese–Soviet campaigns and relations, 1939–45   Reference library

Hatano Sumio

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,487 words
Illustration(s):
2

...through diplomatic channels. Whilst the outbreak of the European war in September 1939 convinced Moscow of the need to come to an agreement with Japan. Soviet and Japanese diplomats in Moscow arranged a cease-fire that became effective on 16 September, and agreed to the establishment of a joint committee to deal with demarcation of the border between Outer Mongolia and Manchukuo. The total killed in this first Japanese–Soviet clash reached a total of 30,000. As Japanese military operations bogged down in China and relations with the USA deteriorated...

diplomacy

diplomacy   Reference library

Z. A. B. Zeman

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...him. The agreement at Potsdam recommended the application of the principles of the UN Charter to post-war problems, and attempted to prevent Germany from ever again becoming a threat to world peace. The Oder–Neisse line became the western border of Poland; and provisions were made for the creation of the Council of Foreign Ministers and for the conclusion of peace treaties with the former enemy states, Italy, Bulgaria, Finland, and Romania. Finally, Article XIII recognized that the transfer of German minorities from Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary would...

Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere

Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere   Reference library

Ian Nish

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...to find their true place (in the world)’. In this speech Tōjō seemed to be reflecting ideas formulated by a body called the Total War Research Institute which had close relations with the army and the cabinet. In January 1942 the institute prepared ‘the draft plan for the establishment of the Co-prosperity Sphere’, which seemed to influence the thinking of the government. Here for the first time we have an attempt at a definition of the sphere. The document divided it into three areas: the Inner Sphere (Japan, Manchukuo, North China, the lower Yangtse...

Bulgaria

Bulgaria   Reference library

Richard Crampton

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...right to administer a large share of Yugoslav Macedonia; full ownership was to await a peace treaty at the end of the war. When Greece was conquered the Bulgarians were given similar rights in eastern Macedonia and most of western Thrace, though much of Macedonia, including Salonika, remained under German control. The Bulgarians had always regarded Macedonia as theirs by right. Their rule therefore saw the introduction of Bulgarian education, including the establishment of a university in Skoplje. However, they overplayed their hand: excessive centralization,...

Hungary

Hungary   Reference library

Ian Armour

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,318 words
Illustration(s):
1

...folk music, as in his Marosszék Dances ( 1944 ). Bartók , while also relying on folk themes, was more modern in his treatment, seeing in what he preferred to call ‘peasant music’ a primitive beauty transcending national boundaries. The fine arts reflected the chasm between establishment and artistic community. Some of the most famous Hungarian artists, such as the photographer-painter László Moholy Nagy or the painter Lajos Tihanyi , lived abroad. Those favoured by the regime still tended towards the neo-Gothic in architecture and sculpture, and an...

China

China   Reference library

Lyman P. Van Slyke

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,716 words
Illustration(s):
4

...communist rule bore some resemblance to that of the nationalists. Both were one-party, Leninist regimes dominated by powerful and highly symbolic leaders. Like the KMT, the CCP was the dominating leg of the tripod which also included its government apparatus and its military establishment. The party exercised control through its own political rules and through interlocking membership at all levels. Factions also existed within the CCP, but they were much less pervasive and divisive than in the KMT; by 1940 at the latest, Mao Tse-tung's leadership was...

Atlantic, battle of the

Atlantic, battle of the   Reference library

Marc Milner

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,598 words
Illustration(s):
3

...British responded in several ways, but the main thrust was the progressive denial of both tactical and strategic surface manoeuvrability to the U-boats. Over the winter of 1940–1 steps were taken to extend the range of naval and air anti-submarine escort, culminating in the establishment of bases in Iceland in April 1941 . In the same month a distinct Western Approaches Command was established in Liverpool to co-ordinate and oversee defence of trade convoys from submarine attack. Icelandic bases permitted defence of convoys by small ships to about 35° West,...

Greece

Greece   Reference library

Richard Clogg

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,723 words
Illustration(s):
1

...areas of rural Greece under its control. Although PEEA was careful not to claim that it constituted a rival government, it clearly posed a threat to the government-in-exile, whose influence within Greece was marginal throughout the period of the occupation. Within days of the establishment of PEEA, mutinies broke out in the Greek armed forces in the Middle East, the leaders of which demanded the creation of a government of national unity based on PEEA. An incensed Churchill ordered the forcible suppression of the disorders but not before they had provoked a...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Ian Nish, Gordon Daniels, Stephen Large, Gordon Daniels, Akashi Yoji, Ian Gow, John Chapman, Peter Davies, and Gordon Daniels

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
21,629 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the Senji Kaiun Kanri Yoko (Outline of Wartime Shipping Control). The first part of the resulting legislation came into effect in March 1942 , so that all steamships over 100 tons and sailing vessels of over 150 tons were requisitioned. This was quickly followed by the establishment of the Senpaku Uneikai (Shipping Committee) which then acted as the sole employer of all of Japan's merchant seamen. The actual ship operations were, wisely, left to the shipowners and this ensured that practical men of experience—mainly from NYK, OSK, Mitsui Bussan,...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

Giorgio Rochat, Lucio Ceva (Intelligence), and Tr. John Gooch

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
19,646 words
Illustration(s):
2

...It was this outlook, and not any lack of courage, which led to no risks being taken in the summer of 1940 when fuel was still abundant but peace seemed close at hand. However the fleet was employed at the end of 1941 and during the first half of 1942 , despite the shortage of fuel, when Malta and the situation in the Western Desert made it inescapable. It was once again kept from danger in 1942–3 when, with peace looming, conserving a navy seemed more important than making a grand gesture; by this time, a shortage of light shipping exacerbated the...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

J. L. Granatstein

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...At the same time, massive sums were pumped into housing, into the re-establishment of veterans, into export promotion. The government even pledged itself to the goal of full employment early in 1945 . Keynesianism had arrived in Canada with a vengeance, and the era of small government was gone. In 1939 , the federal budget had been $680 million; by 1945 , swollen with war expenditure, it was $5.1 billion, and Ottawa was making clear that it was prepared to spend just as freely in the peace. At the same time, the country had begun to assert itself in Allied...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

Jürgen Förster, Charles Messenger (Armed Forces), and Wolfgang Petter (Culture)

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
21,337 words
Illustration(s):
3

...and though the various departments of the Wehrmacht's intelligence and counter-intelligence organization, the Abwehr , worked in relative harmony, there was otherwise much rivalry and duplication of effort and little exchange of information. The fact that the intelligence establishment was not collegial cannot solely be blamed on Hitler's order of 11 January 1940 , which forbade anybody to receive more information than was necessary for the execution of his tasks. There was no single high-level committee which controlled the various collecting agencies and...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as ‘a popular though far less useful application of the Institution’. The expenditure of public funds on creating and maintaining collections that were predominantly scientific and ethnographic in nature was not welcomed by connoisseurs and artists whose first desire was the establishment of a National Gallery of Art. The notion of a gallery that could educate artists, impress foreigners, and definitively answer the aspersions cast against the taste of the British public, had been advanced periodically through the century. However, development of a national...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...example of France after 1789 added a powerful element of anxiety to such claims. From the early summer of 1792 , when the first Royal Proclamation Against Seditious Writings was issued and prosecution against Paine's Rights of Man: Part the Second was inaugurated, the establishment suffered recurrent bouts of anxiety about the prospect of a political and social revolution. These anxieties were not groundless, nor should we dismiss the loyalists' campaign as mere rhetoric. Many experienced the spread of popular radical literature as deeply threatening,...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,193 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the JPs. They were crown appointees named to a panel, the Commission of the Peace, for each county. By 1603 some 71 Commissions were issued, 55 for English and Welsh counties (Wales receiving Commissions only when shired in 1543 ), nine for liberties , and seven for boroughs . A number of towns were exempt from the county Commissions, and were governed by their mayor and aldermen sitting ex officio as justices. Each Commission was supported by a clerk of the peace. Magistrates were in the beginning, and always remained, unsalaried (although they...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,750 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in 1690 the excise establishment had 1 313 employees and by 1779 it had 5 778, but by 1783 this had been reduced to 4 910 ( J. Brewer , The Sinews of Power ( 1989 ), table 4.1). Other than its excise men, central government had no salaried officials in the counties. It therefore relied on its local correspondents to bring matters to its notice. These informers were mostly Justices of the Peace , over whom the centre had little real control. Government could select the individuals to be named to the Commission of the Peace; but it could not ensure...

The Poor

The Poor   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,014 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ended up making financial losses, for it was difficult to oversee the work and few products could be sold. In the second decade of the 18th century the Society for the Propagation (later Promotion) of Christian Knowledge (SPCK), founded in 1698 , began a campaign for the establishment of workhouses in market towns and the larger rural parishes up and down the country under managers who would employ the poor in useful work. In 1723 an Act gave belated recognition to this movement, authorizing the combination of parishes, if necessary, and empowering vestry...

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...trustees were always careful to avoid controversy. At its founding, many in the peace movement hoped Carnegie's gift would establish a powerful advocacy organization; instead, it became an early prototype of the policy research institute. [See also Peace ; Peace and Antiwar Movements. ] Carnegie Endowment for International Peace , Yearbooks (1910–). Michael A. Lutzker , The Formation of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: A Study of the Establishment‐Centered Peace Movement, 1910–1914, in Building the Organizational Society , ed. Jerry Israel...

Carnegie, Andrew

Carnegie, Andrew (1835–1919)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...securing world peace through the establishment of foundations to promote this goal: the Carnegie Hero Fund; the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace ; and the Church Peace Union. He also funded the building of three “Temples of Peace”: the International Court of Justice at the Hague; the Pan American Union Building in Washington, D.C.; and the Central American Court of Justice in Costa Rica. In the naive belief that peace could be purchased, he authorized the trustees of his foundations to eradicate other social ills after world peace had been secured....

View: