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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

quadri-

quadri-   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
273 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...division of the medieval curriculum, consisting of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music). Quadru- is the usual form for words in which the second element begins with a -p- , as in quadruped (= a four-legged animal), quadruple (= to multiply by four), and quadruplet (= one of four children born at one birth). The two words in which quadru - precedes a word without a -p- are rare: quadrumanous (= four-handed) and quadrumvirate (= a group of four men united in some way). Although Eric Partridge said that quadra- is “always wrong” ( U&A ...

Standard English

Standard English   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
924 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as can't , for which /kant/ is standard and /kaynt/ is nonstandard). Throughout the 20th century, commentators noted (sometimes in strong terms) the social disapproval that attaches to nonstandard English. Mostly this is put in negative terms. If you don't speak Standard English, you’re at a social and professional disadvantage—e.g.: • “The intelligent people of America use reasonably pure English. If the speaker falls below this level he simply disgusts.” John P. Altgeld , Oratory: Its Requirements and Its Rewards 9 ( 1901 ). • “Anyone who cannot...

Casualisms

Casualisms   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the main word to denote the disease. Influenza is now considered a hyperformal word; flu has become the ordinary word (no longer a true casualism). Butt presents a different story. In reference to a person's posterior, it was considered rude, even slightly profane, in the mid-20th century. By the 1990s, when the baby boomers had come of age and had children of their own, many were shocked to find that PE teachers were having their children do “butt-lifts” (so called). A dictionary published in 2000 has a label that reads (quite accurately): “potentially...

Comparatives and Superlatives

Comparatives and Superlatives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
769 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... and or the disjunctive or in phrases such as the greater of A [ and ? or ?] B . Logic would seem to demand and to include all the options in the comparison before one is singled out as being the lesser , biggest , oldest , latter , etc. But in fact, since the early 20th century or has been about ten times as common in print as and with this type of phrasing. F. Absolute Adjectives. See adjectives (b)...

Synesis

Synesis   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
784 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in sense—e.g.: “ Three-fourths is a smaller quantity than we had expected.”/ “ Two pounds of shrimp is all I need.” If these constructions are grammatically safe, similar constructions involving collective nouns are somewhat more precarious. The rule consistently announced in 20th-century grammars is as follows: “Collective nouns take sometimes a singular and sometimes a plural verb. When the persons or things denoted are thought of as individuals, the plural should be used. When the collection is regarded as a unit, the singular should be used.” George...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...pronunciations (as they’re shown throughout this book) < ribald is pronounced / rib -әld/> ; (3) to separate the numerator and the denominator in a fraction <19/20> ; (4) in Internet addresses < http://www.oed.com >; and (5) in informal jottings, to separate the elements in a date <11/17/98> . R. Bibliography. For books on punctuation, see the Select Bibliography at the end of this book (p. 1049...

Plurals

Plurals   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,782 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...especially by treating words in the first category as if they belonged in the second—e.g.: • “[It seems] a small enough price to pay, though, for the joy of watching donkies [read donkeys ] year-round.” Rebecca Jones , “Kicking Up Their Heels,” Rocky Mountain News (Denver), 20 Jan. 1996 , at D2. • “Spurred on by this warning, they all continue with their mortal journies [read journeys ] by connecting in ways that will, in the case of death, make their last moments worthwhile.” Mary Houlihan-Skilton , “‘Fat Tuesday’ Needs More Louisiana Magic,” ...

Sexism

Sexism   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,728 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for most men, it is true that he who knows but cannot express what he knows might as well be ignorant.” That sentence opens Chapter 1 of Henry Weihofen 's Legal Writing Style (2d ed. 1980 )—a sentence that, ironically, is flanked by warnings against sexist language (pp. vii, 19–20). If Weihofen were writing today, no doubt he would express himself in neutral language. Throughout the English-speaking world, writers’ awareness of sexism rose most markedly during the 1980s. In September 1984 , the Commonwealth Attorney-General's Department in Canberra,...

prefix

prefix   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
134 words

...are primarily semantic in their effect, changing the meaning of the base. Common prefixes include: counter -productive (M20) de frost (L19) dis connect (L18) fore warn (ME) hyper active (M19) inter national (L18) minis kirt (M20) mal function (E20) non -event (M20) re build (L15) sub zero (M20) under nourished (E20) un natural (LME) ( v. ) Place before a word or base, especially so as to form a new word. • prefixation . 1991 P. H. MATTHEWS Processes of affixation may then be divided into prefixation , suffixation or infixation …In English the...

abbreviation

abbreviation   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
302 words

...word: ID (identity or identification card) TB (tuberculosis) 2. A word (sometimes called a clipping ) standing for the whole, retaining at least one syllable of the original word. ad (advertisement) (M19) demo (demonstration) (M20) flu (influenza) (M19) pub (public house) (M19) phone (telephone) (L19) sitcom (situation comedy) (M20) Clippings vary in their level of formality; mike (microphone) and wellies (wellington boots) are at the informal end of the scale. Other abbreviations are acceptable in formal contexts, e.g. bus (omnibus), maths (US math...

livid

livid   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

.... The meaning that is more familiar today, ‘furiously angry’, is a recent one not recorded before the 20c. The earlier (17c) meaning, still in use, is ‘of a bluish leaden colour; discoloured by bruising’: A huge, livid, recently healed scar ran along the right side of his face — P. Abrahams , 1985...

disgruntled

disgruntled   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...disgruntled has settled into restricted use as an adjective—the older use of disgruntle as a finite verb belongs to the past—but it has brought into being in the 20c. the pleasing occasional back-formation gruntled ( I could see that, if not actually disgruntled, he was far from being gruntled— P. G. Wodehouse, 1938 ) meaning ‘pleasing, satisfied,...

blended

blended   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...participle of the verb blend in ordinary use is blended ( the sky blended in the distance with the sea; blended tea, wines , etc.). Since the 20c. blent has been used only in literary works: It was the memory of Saturday morning, blent with another emotion too vague to name —S. Gibbons, 1937 ; and, probably most famously, in A serious house on serious earth it is, In whose blent air all our compulsions meet —P. Larkin, 1955...

warn

warn verb   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...a grammatical object corresponding to the person or people receiving the warning: She warned them of the danger / She warned them that it was unsafe . In the 20c an intransitive use with a following that -clause came into common use, with the intended recipient of the warning left unspecified: Arafat also warned that any Palestinian group that rejected the idea .… must read itself out of the P.L.O. — Time , 1976 Farmers warned that delays in agreeing rules could lead to next year’s Italian harvests being unintentionally ‘ contaminated ’ — Guardian...

magic

magic   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
143 words

...magical are largely interchangeable, however close or remote the connection with magic and related phenomena: … In the evenings, when the afterglow makes the whole valley magic — J. Ashe , 1993 She had not been kissed for over two years and it was magical — P. Wilson , 1993 . In the second half of the 20c, magic came to be used informally both in attributive position (before a noun) and by itself as a term of enthusiastic approval ( We had a magic time / It’s magic!...

sibling

sibling   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
148 words

...by the end of the 15c.), was reintroduced by anthropologists in the first decade of the 20c. with the meaning ‘each of two or more children having one or both parents in common’. It is a kind of popularized technical term , and usefully fills a lexical gap by providing a gender-neutral term for ‘brother or sister’: Small groups drifted through the classroom: mothers and fathers, large numbers of children—Edward’s pupils along with older and younger siblings —P. Lively, 1990 . The word is also common in the expression sibling rivalry : Moses…shows...

degree

degree   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
147 words

...father is wrath to a degree , meaning ‘your father is extremely cross’. The use survived in more florid English into the 20c and was accepted by Fowler ( 1926 ) ‘however illogical it seems’. But this meaning is now dated, and in current use to a degree means ‘to some extent’ rather than ‘to a great extent’ and this is what will be understood if the word degree is not qualified: W. J. Bryan was to a degree exceptional even in the USA — P. Wiles , 1969 . To avoid any doubt, qualify the word degree in some way, as in to a large degree / to a certain...

quadri-

quadri-   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
240 words

...a - p -, as in quadruped (= a fourlegged animal), quadruple (= to multiply by four), and quadruplet (= one of four children born at one birth). The two words in which quadru - precedes a word without a - p - are rare: quadrumanous (= four-handed) and quadrumvirate (= a group of four men united in some way). Although Eric Partridge said that quadra - is “always wrong” ( U&A ), it appears unexceptionably in many terms deriving from Late Latin, such as quadragesimal (= of or relating to Lent) and quadrangle (= a four-sided figure). And 20...

daylight saving(s) time

daylight saving(s) time   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
169 words

...saving(s) time . Although the singular form daylight saving time is the original one, dating from the early 20th century—and is preferred by some usage critics—the plural form is now extremely common in AmE. E.g.: “When daylight savings time kicks in, a guard will be posted from 5 to 10 p.m.” ( New Orleans Times-Picayune ). The rise of daylight savings time appears to have resulted from the avoidance of a miscue : when saving is used, readers might puzzle momentarily over whether saving is a gerund (the saving of daylight) or a participle (the...

alibi

alibi   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
206 words

...were alibi (elsewhere). From this use it rapidly hardened into a noun: an alibi was ‘an instance of being alibi’ ( Since you think I murdered him, I had better produce my alibi — S. Brett , 1979 ). In the 20c it has developed a colloquial weakened meaning ‘an excuse; a plea of innocence’ ( I have an alibi because I’m going to have a baby — L. P. Hartley , 1951 So far delivery has not lived up to expectations raised by the bold, soaring rhetoric, and the alibis are running out — Independent , 2002 ). This colloquial use is first recorded in American...

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