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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

White Citizens’ Councils

White Citizens’ Councils   Reference library

Charles W. Eagles

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
539 words

...after the U.S. Supreme Court’s May 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education . Inspired by Thomas P. Brady ’s “Black Monday” speech, Robert B. Patterson , a plantation manager in Leflore County, rallied more than a dozen white men in nearby Indianola to organize resistance to racial integration. A subsequent, larger public meeting resulted in the formation of the Indianola Citizens’ Council. Other local councils soon emerged, and in October 20 groups publicly formed the Association of Citizens’ Councils in Mississippi with Patterson as executive...

Obscenity and Pornography

Obscenity and Pornography   Reference library

Donald A. Downs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,594 words

...without redeeming so-cial importance” (p. 484). Brennan confined obscenity to “material which deals with sex in a manner appealing to prurient interest.” He defined prurient interest as either “[h]aving a tendency to excite lustful thoughts” or as a “shameful and morbid interest in sex” (p. 487). He then promulgated the following test for obscenity: “whether to the average person, ap-plying contemporary community standards, the dominant theme of the material taken as a whole appeals to the prurient interest” (p. 489). Roth ’s test focused on prurience. Yet...

Homeland Security, Department of

Homeland Security, Department of   Reference library

Patrick S. Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,042 words

...Law Review 59 (2006): 673–760. Kettl, Donald F. System under Stress: Homeland Security and American Politics . Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2004. Moynihan, Donald P. “ Homeland Security and the U.S. Public Management Policy Agenda. ” Governance 18 (2005): 171–196. Roberts, Patrick S. “ FEMA and the Prospects for Reputation-Based Autonomy. ” Studies in American Political Development 20 (Spring 2006): 57–87. Patrick S....

Agricultural Policy

Agricultural Policy   Reference library

David E. Hamilton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,162 words

...of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. Cochrane, Willard W., and Mary E. Ryan. American Farm Policy, 1948–1973 . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1976. Dimitri, Carolyn, Anne Effland, and Neilson Conklin. The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agriculture and Farm Policy . Electronic Information Bulletin No. 3, Economic Research Service, USDA. June 2005. http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/eib3/eib3.htm (accessed 17 March 2011). Winders, Bill. The Politics of Food Supply: U.S....

Environmentalism

Environmentalism   Reference library

Donald Worster and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,704 words

...than Americans had generally realized and that what happened to one side of the relationship inevitably affected the other. Capping a decade of ferment, environmentalists in 1970 declared the first Earth Day, an event to celebrate human–nature interdependence. An estimated 20 million people, most of them North Americans and most under the age of thirty, participated, far outnumbering student demonstrations for the civil rights movement or for an end to the Vietnam War. The event became an annual, and eventually a truly international, ritual—an...

SUFFRAGE

SUFFRAGE  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...24 percent of the U.S. population. The largest excluded category includes the approximately 80 million unregistered persons over the age of eighteen, which represents 26 percent of the U.S. population. Approximately 60 million of this group are unregistered citizens; the other 20 million are unregistered noncitizens. When assessed together, these excluded categories indicate that more than half of the U.S. population remains unable to vote, despite the tremendous expansion of the American electorate over the past four centuries. [ See also Civil Rights...

Federal Government, Executive Branch

Federal Government, Executive Branch   Reference library

David K. Nichols, Richard C. Sawyer, Steven L. Rearden, Pearson Bramblett, Daniel J. Tichenor, David L. Herzberg, Daniel J. Tichenor, Joshua H. Mather, Henry F. Graff, Robert David Johnson, and Jesse Stiller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
12,762 words

...Burke, John P. The Institutional Presidency . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. Fenno, Richard. The President’s Cabinet . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959. Hinsdale, Mary L. A History of the President’s Cabinet . Ann Arbor, Mich.: G. Wahr, 1911. Learned, Henry Barrett. The President’s Cabinet: Studies in the Origin, Formation, and Structure of an American Institution . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1912. Moe, Ronald C. “The President’s Cabinet.” In Understanding the Presidency , edited by James P. Pfiffner and...

Elections

Elections   Reference library

J. Morgan Kousser, Alan Ware, Allan J. Lichtman, Charles A. Kromkowski, and Donald A. DeBats

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
14,415 words

...at which the nominee would be chosen. With the introduction of direct primaries for other offices early in the twentieth century, proposals for selecting national convention delegates through a primary gained support. First used in 1912 , presidential primaries were deployed in 20 states by 1920 . Subsequently the number of states using them fell to about thirteen or fourteen in a typical year, with the vast majority of delegates still being selected in a process that involved caucuses and conventions within a state. This so-called “mixed” nominating system...

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