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p20

1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3. 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat ...

p20

p20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...p20 1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3 . 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat in the 5′ UTR that is a feature of fragile X syndrome . 3. p20-CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β ‎ ( CEBP β ‎), a truncated C/EBP β ‎...

p20

p20  

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Overview Page
1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3.2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat in the 5′ UTR that is a feature of fragile X ...
20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the British book in the 20 th and early 21 st centuries has proved itself distinctive: thoroughly engaged with deep changes in society, heavily market-oriented, and occasionally iconic both in form and in content. Bibliography D. Athill , Stet (2000) E. de Bellaigue , British Book Publishing as a Business since the 1960s (2004) C. Bloom , Bestsellers (2002) P. Buitenhuis , The Great War of Words (1987) J. Carey , The Intellectuals and the Masses (1992) G. Clark and A. Phillips , Inside Book Publishing , 4e (2008) P. Delany , Literature, Money...

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...20 th century, book production in Switzerland increased from about 1,000 titles to almost 14,000 per year. Just over four-fifths of the books published at the end of the 20 th century appeared in one of the national languages: 59 per cent in German, 18 per cent in French, 3 per cent in Italian, and 0.6 per cent in Rhaeto-Romanic, much of the rest being published in English. Yet these account for only about 30 per cent of the books on sale in Switzerland, with roughly 70 per cent being of foreign origins. Among Swiss publishing houses established in the 20...

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1914 were simply not available. But ‘Time's eternal motion’ has inexorably brought the 20th century firmly into the ambit of family and local historians, and the richness and variety of the records awaiting them will repay huge dividends. See S. Caunce , Oral History and the Local Historian (1994) , The Longman Guide to Sources in Contemporary British History , i: C. Cook and D. Waller , Organisations and Societies (1994) , and ii: C. Cook , J. Leonard , and P. Leese , Individuals (1994) , E. Lord , Investigating the Twentieth Century: Sources...

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands

43a The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (1): The Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...use of roman script. Dedicated to translating the Bible into indigenous languages, Christian missionaries were especially active in employing this script. Its use in printing gave roman script an overpowering advantage, strongly supported in the 19 th and 20 th centuries by colonial governments. In the 20 th century, roman script became the accepted medium for the public sphere throughout the entire region. In the Philippines, Indic syllabaries closely connected to the Indic scripts in Indonesia had been in use before the 16 th century, but under the...

30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...des Buchhandels in Österreich (2000) A. Durstmüller , 500 Jahre Druck in Österreich (1982) H. P. Fritz , Buchstadt und Buchkrise. Verlagswesen und Literatur in Osterreich 1945–1955 (1989) M. G. Hall , Österreichische Verlagsgeschichte 1918–1938 (1985) — Der Paul Zsolnay Verlag (1994) — and C. Köstner , “… allerlei für die Nationalbibliothek zu ergattern …”: Eine österreichische Institution in der NS-Zeit (2006) A. Köllner , Buchwesen in Prag (2000) J.-P. Lavandier , Le Livre au temps de Marie Thérèse (1993) LGB ...

Titus Andronicus

Titus Andronicus   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,504 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...enjoyed by the ‘blood tragedies’ written in the late 1580s and early 1590s. In 1785 Malone ascribed the play to Marlowe, Shakespeare’s main rival at the beginning of his career. The theory of co-authorship, which first emerged in the early 20th century, is currently the most popular. Only towards the middle of the 20th century did critics start to overlook the vexed question of authorship in order to establish the intrinsic qualities of the play itself. Peter Brook ’s cornerstone production at Stratford in 1955 triggered off an unprecedented number of...

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,488 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...divisions into different periods or eras of a ruler’s reign. The years, in turn, were divided into twelve lunar months of 29 or 30 days. Over a period of nineteen years, seven intercalary months were added in order to bring the lunar cycle into accord with the solar cycle. In the 20 th century, the lunar calendar was replaced by the Gregorian calendar and Christian Era (or Common Era) for official purposes. Modern printed books give an imprint in the Christian Era. In Burma, government and administrative matters are regulated by the Christian Era and...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,963 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...affect the author’s meaning’) and *accidentals (‘such in general as spelling, punctuation, word-division … affecting mainly … formal presentation’) (p. 21). He argued that ‘the copy-text should govern (generally) in the matter of accidentals, but that the choice between substantive readings belongs to the general theory of textual criticism and lies altogether beyond the narrow principle of the copy-text’ (p. 26). In Greg’s recommended procedure, the editor (where extant texts ‘form an ancestral series’) normally chooses the earliest text, which will ‘not...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Denmark’s *Kyster as pioneers. Early 20 th -century Scandinavian *typography was strongly influenced by Modernism (Hugo Lagerström, Steen Eiler Rasmussen). In the 1940s and 1950s , British axial typography prevailed in fiction (C. Volmer Nordlunde) and Swiss asymmetry in *textbooks (Viggo Naae, *Forsberg ). From the 1960s onwards, both lines were typographically improved ( *Frederiksen , Carl Fredrik Hultenheim, *Kristensen ), and increased *legibility became a major desideratum (Bror Zachrisson). Late 20 th -century typographers excelled in...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...volumes. In the same years, several individuals—among them Henry E. *Huntington , J. P. *Morgan, Jr. , and H. C. *Folger —enriched the possibilities for scholarship by founding repositories (the *Huntington Library , the Pierpont Morgan Library, the *Folger Shakespeare Library ) to house and build upon great private collections. 4.3 Continuity and community in reading As producers and mediators of books adapted to the burgeoning, diverse consumer culture of the 20 th century, their audiences perpetuated established reading practices while...

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,017 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of New Zealand Published Books , report for the Ministry of Culture and Heritage (2003), www.mch.govt.nz/publications/book-export/export-nz-books-report.pdf , consulted Mar. 2007 P. Griffith et al ., eds., Book & Print in New Zealand (1997); online at the New Zealand Etext Centre, www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-GriBook.html , consulted Sept. 2007 P. Parkinson and P. Griffith , Books in Maori, 1815–1900 (2004) L. Paterson , Colonial Discourses: Niupepa Maori, 1855–1863 (2006) H. Price , School Books Published in New Zealand to 1960 (1992) A....

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,365 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...country. During the second half of the 20th century the academic debate on the purpose of the study of local history revolved around two questions: how far should local studies be an end in themselves rather than an exploration of national themes at a local level; and what is the appropriate unit of study for a local historian? In his inaugural lecture as the head of the Leicester University Department of (now Centre for) English Local History, subsequently published as The Local Historian and His Theme ( 1952 ), H. P. R. Finberg addressed the problem of...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

..., whose beautifully crafted bindings, produced to his own designs, inspired a revival of interest in handcrafted bookbinding. A tradition of fine bookbinding flourished in many countries during the 20 th century; in England, A 20 th -century binding by Edgar *Mansfield , an influential figure in the development of the *Designer Bookbinder movement in the later 20 th century: *blind-tooling on yellow *goatskin . The upper cover of H. E. Bates’s Through the Woods (London, 1936). © The British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. (C.128.f.10) the...

The Antiquarian Tradition

The Antiquarian Tradition   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,837 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...volumes of the VCH have been published, but the original scheme is far from complete. The VCH provides a link between the best scholarship of the antiquarian tradition and that of the local historians of the 20th century. It is fitting that a Festschrift for the general editor, C. R. Elrington , should be published as C. R. J. Currie and C. P. Lewis (eds), English County Histories: A Guide ( 1994 ). See also women local and family historians . David...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...there were an estimated 45,000 men peddling books to 20 million readers throughout Germany and Austria. The 19 th century also saw the foundation of the earliest book clubs, offering subscribers new books at advantageous prices. The earliest, apparently, was the Verein zur Verbreitung guter katholischer Bücher, founded in 1829 . The Litterarischer Verein in Stuttgart, founded in 1839 , specialized in scholarly editions of older literary works, many of which have still not been superseded. Later, 20 th -century book clubs included the *Büchergilde...

Surnames

Surnames   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,649 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the study of the etymology of surnames; see P. H. Reaney , The Origins of English Surnames ( 1967 ), P. H. Reaney and R. M. Wilson , A Dictionary of English Surnames (3rd rev. edn, 1997 ), Patrick Hanks and Flavia Hodges , The Oxford Dictionary of Surnames ( 1988 ), Edward MacLysaght , The Surnames of Ireland (6th edn, 1989 ), Robert Bell , The Book of Ulster Surnames ( 1988 ), George F. Black , The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning and History (rev. edn, 1999 ), T. J. and P. Morgan , Welsh Surnames ( 1985 ), and John ...

31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The Gesta Hungarorum ( c .1200 ) chronicles the history of the Hungarians from the beginnings till the Árpáds’ conquest of Hungary. Written by the unidentified Magister P. (sometimes referred to as ‘Anonymus’) during the reign of King Béla III ( 1172–96 ), the book had been held abroad since its creation, only to be repatriated to the National Library of *Hungary from Vienna in the 20 th century. The most impressive historical work of the Hungarian Middle Ages is the chronicle (also called Gesta Hungarorum ) of Simon Kézai, the court chaplain of ...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a phenomenon that had important commercial and cultural implications. Fundamental structural changes paved the way for the future direction of the publishing industry and became integral to 20 th -century developments in the horizontal integration of the industry, by which smaller firms merged to form larger publishing houses that commanded a greater market share. 9 The 20 th century The growth in book production in the 50 years before World War I was higher than the growth in the reading public—a ‘catching-up’ after the setbacks of the mid- 1860s . The...

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