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nuclear Freeze

During the Cold War, several periods of protest against nuclear weapons took place in the United States. By far the largest protest campaign involved the nuclear freeze movement. This ...

nuclear freeze

nuclear freeze   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... freeze a halt in the construction and/or testing of nuclear...

Nuclear Freeze

Nuclear Freeze   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,610 words

...been founded in the campaign against nuclear testing. This step marked the symbolic end of the nuclear freeze movement. Impact The movement’s goal of a nuclear weapons freeze never became part of U.S. policy. Nevertheless, the nuclear freeze movement did influence policy. Knopf ( 1998 ) showed that the nuclear freeze movement helped cause two changes in Reagan administration policy. First, the nuclear freeze movement helped convince the administration to resume nuclear arms control talks much sooner than it had intended. When Reagan took office, his...

Peace Action

Peace Action   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...nuclear disarmament organization in the United States. Originally known as the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE), it was founded in 1957 by prominent citizens concerned about the hazards associated with nuclear testing and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 , which halted atmospheric nuclear tests, is considered the organization's greatest achievement. SANE merged in 1987 with the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign (FREEZE), which originated in response to President Ronald Reagan 's nuclear...

National Committee For a Sane Nuclear Policy

National Committee For a Sane Nuclear Policy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...to “freezenuclear weapons (to prevent proposed escalation of the arms race ). In 1987 , the two largest peace organizations in the country merged into SANE/FREEZE: Campaign for Global Security, an organization of over 240 local groups, 24 state affiliates, and 170,000 members. The goals of SANE/FREEZE remained a comprehensive ban on nuclear testing as the first step toward complete disarmament and a redirection of military spending to social programs. Reverend Coffin served as president until the end of the Cold War in 1989 . In 1993 , SANE/FREEZE...

Antinuclear Protest Movements

Antinuclear Protest Movements   Reference library

Lawrence S. Wittner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...by the advent of the hawkish administration of President Ronald Reagan and the deployment of a new generation of nuclear missiles in Europe—led to a new and more powerful wave of popular protest. Organizations like SANE, Mobilization for Survival, and Physicians for Social Responsibility organized a mammoth antinuclear effort, with the largest political demonstrations in American history. The Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign garnered the support of the major churches, unions, the Democratic Party, and—according to polls—70 percent or more of the...

Antinuclear Protest Movements.

Antinuclear Protest Movements.   Reference library

Lawrence S. Wittner

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
586 words

...by the advent of the hawkish administration of President Ronald Reagan and the deployment of a new generation of nuclear missiles in Europe—led to a new and more powerful wave of popular protest. Organizations like SANE, Mobilization for Survival, and Physicians for Social Responsibility organized a mammoth antinuclear effort, with the largest political demonstrations in American history. The Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign garnered the support of the major churches, unions, the Democratic party , and—according to polls—70 percent or more of...

Nuclear Protest Movements

Nuclear Protest Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...administration, with its glib talk of nuclear war, convinced millions of Americans that their lives were once more in peril. New groups like Mobilization for Survival and Physicians for Social Responsibility grew rapidly, as did older ones, like SANE, that had fallen into decay. In June 1982 , nearly a million Americans flocked to a New York City rally against nuclear weapons—the largest demonstration in U.S. history. Meanwhile, there emerged a broadly gauged Nuclear Freeze Campaign. Designed to halt the nuclear arms race through bilateral action, it drew...

nuclear winter scenarios

nuclear winter scenarios   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...freeze would be the generation of large quantities of water vapour which would condense and fall as heavy rain. This would tend to wash out the suspended soot and dust from the atmosphere. Wash-out was not allowed for in the TTAPS model. The ozone layer might be damaged by the release of nitrogen oxides from nuclear explosions. The original predictions came from a simple computer model and, as more realistic three-dimensional models were run, the more apocalyptic claims fell away. While the climate models that have been developed assume that nuclear...

Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy

Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,013 words

...Freeze Campaign to form Sane/Freeze. In 1993 , the group was renamed Peace Action, which has continued since then as America’s largest peace organization. [ See also Anti-Communism and Peace Movements ; Antinuclear Power Protests in the United States ; Cousins, Norman ; Nuclear Disarmament, International Campaigns for ; Nuclear Freeze ; Nuclear Nonproliferation ; and Nuclear Test Ban ] Bibliography Katz, Milton S . Ban the Bomb: A History of SANE, the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy . New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. Stassen, Glen Harold , and ...

Antinuclear Movement

Antinuclear Movement   Reference library

Robert Surbrug Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
599 words

...growing public doubts to bring an end to the era of nuclear expansion. The burgeoning nuclear weapons freeze movement soon eclipsed the antinuclear energy movement. In the 1980 s, New York governor Mario Cuomo successfully stopped the completed Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant from going online. Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis was unsuccessful in a similar bid to stop the Seabrook nuclear plant. The early twenty-first century has witnessed a rebirth of the antinuclear movement in the face of a “nuclear renaissance.” The movement has been influential in...

Nuclear Disarmament, International Campaigns for

Nuclear Disarmament, International Campaigns for   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,338 words

... Cousins, Norman ; Einstein, Albert ; European Nuclear Disarmament ; Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp ; Greenpeace ; International Fellowship of Reconciliation ; International Peace Bureau ; Japan, Peace Movements in ; Nuclear-free and Independent Pacific Movement ; Nuclear Freeze ; Nuclear Test Ban ; Nuclear Tests in the Pacific ; Nuclear Weapon-free Zones ; Pauling, Linus ; Pax Christi International ; Peace Symbol ; Physicians for Social Responsibility ; Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs ; Russell, Bertrand ; ...

Nuclear Nonproliferation

Nuclear Nonproliferation   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,750 words

...access to nuclear reactor fuel. NWSs not party to the NPT (e.g., India, Pakistan, and Israel) also provide challenges for the NPT regime. Finally, the five NPT NWSs must indicate to the rest of the parties their desire to fulfill their Article 6 obligations. [ See also International Atomic Energy Agency ; Nuclear Disarmament, International Campaigns for ; Nuclear Disarmament in Europe, 1945–2000 ; Nuclear Freeze ; and Strategic Nuclear Weapons, Limiting ] Bibliography Busch, Nathan E . No End in Sight: The Continuing Menace of Nuclear Proliferation...

Nonproliferation, Nuclear

Nonproliferation, Nuclear   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,139 words

...Russia and the United States were also slowly coming to grips with safely disposing of nuclear weapons material from their dismantled nuclear arsenals. Suspected nuclear weapons programs had also been thwarted, at least temporarily. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea agreed to freeze and eventually dismantle its national nuclear program, including its plutonium production plant, in a 1994 “Agreed Framework” deal with the United States. Iraq's nuclear ambitions were exposed by the Gulf War ; the United Nations subsequently established a Special...

Unilateral Nuclear Disarmament

Unilateral Nuclear Disarmament   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,002 words

...from Russia and the United States, Ukraine finally acceded to the NPT on 5 December 1994 as a non-nuclear weapon state that possessed nuclear weapons for a specified period of time. [ See also Arms Control and Disarmament , subentries on Theory and Negotiations; Disarmament ; Nuclear Disarmament, International Campaigns for ; Nuclear Disarmament in Europe, 1945–2000 ; Nuclear Freeze ; Nuclear Nonproliferation ; and Strategic Nuclear Weapons, Limiting ] Bibliography de Villiers, J. W ., Roger Jardine , and Mitchell Reiss . Why South...

Physicians for Social Responsibility

Physicians for Social Responsibility   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,050 words

...reviving the antinuclear medical movement. [ See also Military-Industrial Complex ; Nuclear Controversies in the United States ; Nuclear Test Ban ; and Peace through Health ] Bibliography Cortright, David . Peace Works: The Citizen’s Role in Ending the Cold War . Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993. Forsberg, Randall . A Call to Halt the Nuclear Arms Race: Proposal for a Mutual US- Soviet Nuclear Weapons Freeze .” (Pamphlet). St. Louis: Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign 1982, April 1982, p 1. Museil, Bob . Hope for a Heated Planet: How Americans Are...

Nuclear Disarmament in Europe, 1945–2000

Nuclear Disarmament in Europe, 1945–2000   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,102 words

...Gomułka, the Polish prime minister, reissued Rapacki’s proposals (Rapacki II Plan). The proposals included plans to freeze nuclear and thermonuclear weapons in Poland, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, and the Federal Republic of Germany. Rapacki’s plans became models for subsequent proposals for nuclear disarmament in Europe. In 1961 , the Swedish social democrat Bo Östen Undén proposed that states without nuclear weapons should declare that they refused to produce, receive, and store such weapons. Undén’s proposal was accepted by the UN...

Strategic Arms Limitation/Strategic Arms Reduction Talks

Strategic Arms Limitation/Strategic Arms Reduction Talks   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...in January 1964 the USA suggested a bilateral verifiable freeze on the number and characteristics of both nations' strategic nuclear offensive and defensive vehicles. Meanwhile other developments threatened to upset the fragile strategic nuclear balance. Other nations had fielded nuclear weapons: the UK in 1952 , France in 1960 , China in 1964 . In 1966 the USSR introduced Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) defence, followed by the USA in 1967 , but discussion between the two superpowers continued. In June 1967 Pres Lyndon B. Johnson met Soviet...

Sanctions Committees

Sanctions Committees   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
551 words

...a travel ban and assets freeze on those implicated in the murder; in respect of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea by Res. 1718 ( 2006 ) of 14 October 2006 to oversee the arms embargo, assets freeze, and travel ban imposed by that resolution to induce North Korea to abandon its nuclear weapons programme; and in respect of Iran by Res. 1737 ( 2006 ) of 23 December 2006 to oversee the technology-related sanctions, assets freeze, and travel restrictions imposed by that resolution to induce Iran to abandon its nuclear weapons...

Nuclear Test Ban

Nuclear Test Ban   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,356 words

...remained unclear over how best to respond to North Korea’s acquisition of nuclear weapons. [ See also Arms Control and Disarmament , subentry on Negotiations ; Nuclear Freeze ; Nuclear Nonproliferation ; and Strategic Nuclear Weapons, Limiting ] Bibliography Chinoy, Mike . Meltdown: The Inside Story of the Korean Nuclear Crisis. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2008. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization. http://www.ctbto.org . Corera, Gordon . Shopping for Bombs: Nuclear Proliferation, Global Insecurity and the Rise and Fall of the A.Q. Khan...

Nuclear Weapon-free Zones

Nuclear Weapon-free Zones   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,792 words

...Gorbachev) resolving to move nuclear weapons out of much of Europe. [ See also Cold War , subentries on Conflicts (1947–1987) and Ending (1987–1991); European Nuclear Disarmament ; Mutual Assured Destruction ; North Atlantic Treaty Organization ; Nuclear Freeze ; Nuclear Nonproliferation ; Strategic Nuclear Weapons, Limiting ; and Weapons of Mass Destruction ] Bibliography Archer, Clive . Plans for a Nordic Nuclear Weapon–Free Zone. Kosmopolis 34 (2004): 201–207. Lodgaard, Sverre , and Marek Thee , eds. Nuclear Disengagement in Europe ....

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