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nuclear Freeze

During the Cold War, several periods of protest against nuclear weapons took place in the United States. By far the largest protest campaign involved the nuclear freeze movement. This ...

nuclear freeze

nuclear freeze   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... freeze a halt in the construction and/or testing of nuclear...

nuclear Freeze

nuclear Freeze  

During the Cold War, several periods of protest against nuclear weapons took place in the United States. By far the largest protest campaign involved the nuclear freeze movement. This movement ...
Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy

Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy  

The Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy was founded as a result of growing U.S. public concern about the nuclear arms race. Responding to an invitation by two highly respected ...
Nuclear Nonproliferation

Nuclear Nonproliferation  

The most technically challenging part of building nuclear weapons is the production of fuel for the weapon. The same process that enriches uranium (increasing the ratio of 235U92 in natural ...
Nuclear Test Ban

Nuclear Test Ban  

(1963)An international agreement not to test nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, in outer space, or under water, signed by the USA, the Soviet Union, and the UK (but not France). On 1 July 1968 the ...
International Campaigns for Nuclear Disarmament

International Campaigns for Nuclear Disarmament  

The struggle against nuclear weapons began even before they existed.1945–1954During World War II, many scientists working on the Manhattan Project (the U.S. effort to produce an atomic bomb) ...
unilateralism

unilateralism  

Literally ‘one‐sidedness’, although unilateralists protested vigorously in the 1980s when opponents so translated it. A British movement against domestic involvement with nuclear weapons. All ...
Missile Defense Issues

Missile Defense Issues  

The need for a defense against ballistic missile attack first arose in 1944. At the end of World War II, Nazi Germany launched V-2 rockets against Allied targets in Europe ...
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks  

(SALT)Agreements between the USA and the Soviet Union, aimed at limiting the production and deployment of nuclear weapons. A first round of meetings (1969–72) produced the SALT I Agreement, which ...
United States Peace Movements, 1800–1945

United States Peace Movements, 1800–1945  

The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945, although welcomed by some, provoked an immediate outcry. The many peace movement voices, silent or actively prowar, again ...
Peace Action

Peace Action   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...nuclear disarmament organization in the United States. Originally known as the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE), it was founded in 1957 by prominent citizens concerned about the hazards associated with nuclear testing and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 , which halted atmospheric nuclear tests, is considered the organization's greatest achievement. SANE merged in 1987 with the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign (FREEZE), which originated in response to President Ronald Reagan 's nuclear...

National Committee For a Sane Nuclear Policy

National Committee For a Sane Nuclear Policy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...to “freezenuclear weapons (to prevent proposed escalation of the arms race ). In 1987 , the two largest peace organizations in the country merged into SANE/FREEZE: Campaign for Global Security, an organization of over 240 local groups, 24 state affiliates, and 170,000 members. The goals of SANE/FREEZE remained a comprehensive ban on nuclear testing as the first step toward complete disarmament and a redirection of military spending to social programs. Reverend Coffin served as president until the end of the Cold War in 1989 . In 1993 , SANE/FREEZE...

Nuclear Protest Movements

Nuclear Protest Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...administration, with its glib talk of nuclear war, convinced millions of Americans that their lives were once more in peril. New groups like Mobilization for Survival and Physicians for Social Responsibility grew rapidly, as did older ones, like SANE, that had fallen into decay. In June 1982 , nearly a million Americans flocked to a New York City rally against nuclear weapons—the largest demonstration in U.S. history. Meanwhile, there emerged a broadly gauged Nuclear Freeze Campaign. Designed to halt the nuclear arms race through bilateral action, it drew...

Strategic Arms Limitation/Strategic Arms Reduction Talks

Strategic Arms Limitation/Strategic Arms Reduction Talks   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...in January 1964 the USA suggested a bilateral verifiable freeze on the number and characteristics of both nations' strategic nuclear offensive and defensive vehicles. Meanwhile other developments threatened to upset the fragile strategic nuclear balance. Other nations had fielded nuclear weapons: the UK in 1952 , France in 1960 , China in 1964 . In 1966 the USSR introduced Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) defence, followed by the USA in 1967 , but discussion between the two superpowers continued. In June 1967 Pres Lyndon B. Johnson met Soviet...

Fellowship of Reconciliation

Fellowship of Reconciliation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...when executive secretary Al Hassler urged support for the Buddhist pacifists' “Third Force” solution, while others called for immediate unilateral U.S. troop withdrawal. After Vietnam, FOR investigated events in Nicaragua between the Sandinistas and contras, and joined the Nuclear Freeze Campaign of the 1980s. Prior to the Persian Gulf War , the Fellowship led a peace mission with medical supplies to refugees in Jordan and Iraq. In the mid‐1990s, it instituted a Civilian Casualty Fund to aid Bosnian Muslims. FOR membership in 1998 was about 8,000—the...

Peace and Antiwar Movements

Peace and Antiwar Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...in the spiraling nuclear arms race began under President Jimmy Carter and accelerated sharply under Ronald Reagan . Large‐scale protest gathered force in Europe, while in the United States a coalition of peace groups backed the idea of a mutual, verifiable freeze in nuclear weapons. Although coordinated by a national organization, the Nuclear Freeze Campaign, the freeze reflected grassroots activism that was elicited by growing public awareness of the destructive realities of a nuclear exchange. An important result of the Nuclear Freeze Campaign was to...

Strategy

Strategy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of the public, the Reagan administration's position on nuclear war planning was not significantly different from that of its predecessors. However, it had brought to the declarative level, and thus made openly public, the assumptions upon which the operational level planners had been working for years—and that had shocked a considerable and influential segment of the public. The reaction that set in during 1982–83 , symbolized by the Nuclear Freeze Campaign and an unusual pastoral letter against nuclear war from the Roman Catholic bishops' conference in...

Arms Control and Disarmament: Non Nuclear

Arms Control and Disarmament: Non Nuclear   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...recent. In 1899 and 1907 , Czar Nicholas II of Russia instigated The Hague Peace Conference with the declared aim of ensuring universal peace and reducing excessive armaments. The Czar's motives were not entirely altruistic. He hoped to freeze the military modernization efforts of the Austro‐Hungarian and German empires and cause them to spend on industry and commerce, not armaments. The Conferences outlawed the use of dumdum bullets and asphyxiating gases; regulated the use of underwater mines; improved arbitration procedures; and codified certain laws...

Industry and War

Industry and War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...half of all men over the age of sixty‐five were in the workforce during that war, compared to 2 percent in the 1990s. The war also saw a tremendous increase in union membership, but union leaders had to accept modest wage increases and agree to a “no‐strike” pledge. A government freeze on prices, wages, salaries, and rents made inflation less of a problem than in World War I, but these controls were widely resented and a black market of troubling proportions emerged. Great advances in technology and scientific research were achieved through war...

Peace Research/Peace Studies: A Twentieth Century Intellectual History

Peace Research/Peace Studies: A Twentieth Century Intellectual History   Reference library

Carolyn Stephenson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,906 words

...In the US, the Nuclear Freeze Movement led to a resolution in the US Congress to freeze the development of nuclear weapons. Religious bodies in Europe and the US, most notably the US Conference of Catholic Bishops, applying just war criteria found that, certainly, nuclear war and, most likely, nuclear deterrence, did not fit within the just war criteria. ( 1970 ) Among the advisors to the writers of this statement were peace researchers including Bruce Russett and Gene Sharp . While international relations scholars focused on nuclear deterrence and how...

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