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nuclear Freeze

During the Cold War, several periods of protest against nuclear weapons took place in the United States. By far the largest protest campaign involved the nuclear freeze movement. This ...

Nonproliferation, Nuclear

Nonproliferation, Nuclear   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,139 words

...Russia and the United States were also slowly coming to grips with safely disposing of nuclear weapons material from their dismantled nuclear arsenals. Suspected nuclear weapons programs had also been thwarted, at least temporarily. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea agreed to freeze and eventually dismantle its national nuclear program, including its plutonium production plant, in a 1994 “Agreed Framework” deal with the United States. Iraq's nuclear ambitions were exposed by the Gulf War ; the United Nations subsequently established a Special...

disarmament

disarmament   Quick reference

David Carlton

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
981 words

...less utopian goal of seeking agreement on partial measures intended to cover particular categories of weapons, or applying to designated geographical areas (as in the case of nuclear‐weapon‐free zones). And in this kind of strictly limited context the goal has sometimes been abolition, sometimes limited reduction, sometimes a freeze, sometimes even a mutually agreed increase. Now a freeze or a mutually agreed increase is not strictly speaking disarmament at all. And such measures may not even be intended to be a first step towards any kind of reduction or...

Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

Chernobyl Nuclear Accident   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,321 words

...and subjected to special processing methods to reduce radioactivity before consumption. The Chernobyl accident was a turning point in Soviet history and in public perceptions of nuclear power. It reversed the trend toward wider reliance on nuclear power and discredited the belief that this was the ultimate answer to the world's energy needs. (See also Environmentalism ; Nuclear Freeze.) Report of the U.S. Department of Energy's Team Analyses of the Chernobyl-4 Atomic Energy Station Accident Sequence , U.S. Department of Energy (Washington, D.C., 1986). Summary...

Arms Control

Arms Control   Reference library

Patrick M. Morgan

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,793 words

...to ban the spread of nuclear weapons includes agreement in principle by some major nuclear powers to eventually eliminate their nuclear weapons as well, blending arms control and disarmament. Extensive effort has gone into crafting elaborate agreements limiting US and Soviet/Russian nuclear weapons and shrinking their arsenals: limits on numbers of various specific missiles and bombers, and of numbers of nuclear weapons allowed on strategic missiles or bombers. These pacts initially included each party tolerating its nuclear weapons being observed by...

Korea, Republic of

Korea, Republic of   Reference library

Meredith Woo-Cumings

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,335 words

...backslide in North-South relations. This culminated in the sinking of the Cheonan in March 2010 , a South Korean naval ship that went down in contested waters off of the west coast. South Korea and the United States blamed the North for this act, sending relations into a deep freeze and leading to armed clashes on South Korean islands very near the North's borders, in the late fall of 2010 . Soon the tension subsided, however, and signs emerged that the North might return to the “Six-Party Talks” (the two Koreas, the United States, China, Japan, and...

United Nations

United Nations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,043 words

...of cooperation in the UN Security Council, there was an expansion of peacekeeping: in 1988 to 1999 , forty new operations were established—three times as many as in the whole of the UN's previous history. Some of the new operations involved innovative efforts not merely to freeze conflicts, but also to resolve them—for example (as in Namibia and Cambodia), through assisting elections and the reconstruction of civil society. The most severe difficulties arose when peacekeepers were deployed to countries with fragile or nonexistent cease-fires. In the...

Corruption in African Politics

Corruption in African Politics   Reference library

Tom Lodge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,936 words

...Even so, Ghana’s anti-corruption agencies, established in 1993 , are considered to be comparatively effective in an African setting, relatively independent and well-staffed, and in the case of the Serious Fraud office, equipped with investigative powers and the capacity to freeze accounts. Their impact is limited by reluctance of politically appointed attorney generals to undertake prosecutions ( Doig, Watt, & Williams, 2005 , pp. 56–58). Sometimes factionalized political environments can supply the motivations that drive successful actions against...

Antinuclear Movement

Antinuclear Movement   Reference library

Robert Surbrug Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
599 words

...growing public doubts to bring an end to the era of nuclear expansion. The burgeoning nuclear weapons freeze movement soon eclipsed the antinuclear energy movement. In the 1980 s, New York governor Mario Cuomo successfully stopped the completed Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant from going online. Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis was unsuccessful in a similar bid to stop the Seabrook nuclear plant. The early twenty-first century has witnessed a rebirth of the antinuclear movement in the face of a “nuclear renaissance.” The movement has been influential in...

Peace Movements

Peace Movements   Reference library

E. Charles Chatfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
939 words

...promote broader economic and social change. The movement’s radical phase peaked in 1968 – 1970 , after which a liberal antiwar constituency became dominant. When the nuclear-weapons issue again arose in the 1980 s, peace groups helped mobilize still another large political coalition: the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign to halt the U.S .–Soviet arms race. Although Congress compromised the freeze proposal and its popular support dissolved after President Ronald Reagan proposed his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983 , the campaign revived arms-control...

Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of

Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of   Reference library

Bruce Cumings

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,474 words

...followed by a State Department emissary arriving in Pyongyang a month later to accuse the North of having a second nuclear program, this time in enriched uranium, that caused North Korea to retaliate by announcing an end to the plutonium freeze. Then the invasion of Iraq in March 2003 led Pyongyang to think that it might be next. Thereafter, time and time again the North proclaimed that the only way to assure its security was through a nuclear deterrent. Beijing also appeared to fear a coming clash between Washington and Pyongyang, and succeeded in...

Russia–United States Relations

Russia–United States Relations   Reference library

Allen C. Lynch

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,413 words

...nuclear threats induced Khrushchev to negotiate the removal of the missiles in exchange for a US pledge not to invade Cuba and, secretly, to remove obsolete US intermediate-range nuclear missiles from Turkey . The extreme danger of the Cuban Missile Crisis, during which Kennedy thought the chances of nuclear war were between 33 and 50 percent, led to a series of periodic steps by the two nuclear superpowers to regulate their competition so that there would be no “Cubas” in the future. Such measures included: ■ signature of the Limited Nuclear Test...

United Nations

United Nations   Reference library

Ramesh Thakur

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,485 words

...outside the ICC. Nuclear Weapons. The nuclear arms control regime centered on the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) is under challenge on many fronts. Against the backdrop of the threat of the NPT fraying and a cascade of proliferation, interest in the long-standing goal of nuclear abolition was revived by President Barack Obama . The hard core of negotiations to freeze and dismantle nuclear stockpiles, abolish nuclear weapons, and place the nuclear fuel cycle under international control will be conducted among the nine nuclear powers directly. But...

Peace Research/Peace Studies: A Twentieth Century Intellectual History

Peace Research/Peace Studies: A Twentieth Century Intellectual History   Reference library

Carolyn Stephenson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,906 words

...In the US, the Nuclear Freeze Movement led to a resolution in the US Congress to freeze the development of nuclear weapons. Religious bodies in Europe and the US, most notably the US Conference of Catholic Bishops, applying just war criteria found that, certainly, nuclear war and, most likely, nuclear deterrence, did not fit within the just war criteria. ( 1970 ) Among the advisors to the writers of this statement were peace researchers including Bruce Russett and Gene Sharp . While international relations scholars focused on nuclear deterrence and how...

Korea, Republic of

Korea, Republic of   Reference library

Meredith Woo-Cumings

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,320 words

...in North-South relations. This culminated in the sinking of the Cheonan in March 2010 , a South Korean naval ship that went down in contested waters off of the west coast. South Korea and the United States blamed the North for this act, sending relations into a deep freeze and leading to armed clashes on South Korean islands very near the North’s borders, in the late fall of 2010 . Soon the tension subsided, however, and signs emerged that the North might return to the “Six-Party Talks” (the two Koreas, the United States , China , Japan , and Russia)...

Teaching International Political Sociology

Teaching International Political Sociology   Reference library

Vincent Pouliot

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,559 words

...political life belongs to the realm of ideas. In world politics, for instance, Wendt ( 1995 :73) explains that “500 British nuclear weapons are less threatening to the United States than 5 North Korean nuclear weapons, because the British are friends of the United States and the North Koreans are not, and amity or enmity is a function of shared understandings.” Clearly, if Washington were to act solely on the distribution of nuclear warheads, it should fear London much more than Pyongyang. Since this is not the case, “something else must be going on,”...

Green Parties

Green Parties   Reference library

Michael O’Neill

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,522 words

...as voicing new issues, preferring “bottom-up” and democratic rather than “top-down” and oligarchic politics. But once in parliament, if not yet in government, green parties were obliged to rethink not merely tactics but also their broad strategy. Of course, it is premature to freeze this debate as if the growing frequency of green inclusion in “normal politics” will not be likely to alter perceptions all around, not merely of the greens per se but also of their political opponents and voters at large. Nor does a meaningful role for green parties, their...

Norms and Social Constructivism in International Relations

Norms and Social Constructivism in International Relations   Reference library

Matthew J. Hoffmann

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,386 words

...Make of Them. International Studies Quarterly 44(2), 293–316. Sørensen, G. (2008) The Case for Combining Material Forces and Ideas in the Study of IR. European Journal of International Relations 14(1), 5–32. Tannenwald, N. (1999) The Nuclear Taboo: The United States and the Normative Basis of Nuclear Non-Use. International Organization 53(3), 433–68. Van Kersbergen, K. , and Verbeek, B. (2007) The Politics of International Norms: Subsidiarity and the Imperfect Competence Regime of the European Union. European Journal of International Relations...

Federal Government, Executive Branch

Federal Government, Executive Branch   Reference library

David K. Nichols, Richard C. Sawyer, Steven L. Rearden, Pearson Bramblett, Daniel J. Tichenor, David L. Herzberg, Daniel J. Tichenor, Joshua H. Mather, Henry F. Graff, Robert David Johnson, and Jesse Stiller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
12,762 words

...fuels. Federal regulation of energy markets was rolled back during the Reagan years, while Energy secretaries James B. Edwards and Donald P. Hodel promoted nuclear power. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 placed the Energy Department at the center of political controversy by giving it responsibility for locating, constructing, and operating sites for the disposal of civilian and military nuclear waste. The department also monitors U.S. energy consumption and promotes new energy technologies. Department of Education ( 1979 ).  Given the decentralized...

Institutional Actors in Foreign Policy Analysis

Institutional Actors in Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Ralph Carter and James M. Scott

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,423 words
Illustration(s):
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... (1993) How Congress Influences Foreign and Domestic Policy. In R.B. Ripley and J.M. Lindsay (eds.) Congress Resurgent: Foreign and Defense Policy on Capitol Hill . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 3–14. McCormick, J.M. (1985) Congressional Voting on the Nuclear Freeze Resolutions. American Politics Quarterly 13, 122–36. McCormick, J.M. , and Black, M. (1983) Ideology and Voting on the Panama Canal Treaties. Legislative Studies Quarterly 8, 45–63. McCormick, J.M. , and Wittkopf, E.R. (1990) Bipartisanship, Partisanship, and Ideology...

Arms Control and Arms Reductions in Foreign Policy

Arms Control and Arms Reductions in Foreign Policy   Reference library

Harald Müller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
14,724 words

...wars, and generally in the field of weapons of mass destruction. Fear is visible in the utterances of both promoters and opponents of Arms Control. The peace movement in Europe and the freeze movement in the United States during the early 1980s were largely motivated by the acute concern about the imminent risk of nuclear war ( Nye, 1986 ; Risse-Kappen, 1988 ) or “nuclear anxiety” ( Sauer, 2016 , pp. 105–172). Many opponents of Arms Control are obsessed with a paranoid fear of the supposed enemy. They ascribed evil intentions to the Soviet Union even when...

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