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nuclear Freeze

During the Cold War, several periods of protest against nuclear weapons took place in the United States. By far the largest protest campaign involved the nuclear freeze movement. This ...

nuclear winter scenarios

nuclear winter scenarios   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...freeze would be the generation of large quantities of water vapour which would condense and fall as heavy rain. This would tend to wash out the suspended soot and dust from the atmosphere. Wash-out was not allowed for in the TTAPS model. The ozone layer might be damaged by the release of nitrogen oxides from nuclear explosions. The original predictions came from a simple computer model and, as more realistic three-dimensional models were run, the more apocalyptic claims fell away. While the climate models that have been developed assume that nuclear...

water and water types

water and water types   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,597 words
Illustration(s):
3

...1). All three states coexist in equilibrium at the triple point for H 2 O near 0.01 °C (273K), 0.006 bar (0.0006 MPa) (Tr. pt, Fig. 1). Cirrus clouds form at triple-point conditions. At °C and surface pressure, liquid water freezes to become solid. Along the solid (ice I–liquid) boundary, increasing pressure causes liquid water to freeze at a lower temperature. Conversely, ice skaters glide effortlessly over the ice as their weight ( P ) induces melting; beneath their blades a two-phase region develops: a thin film of water over ice. Along the vapour–liquid...

North Pole

North Pole   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...of sea ice at 90° north latitude: In 1991 it was barely 1.2 meters thick and 2 diesel-powered ice breakers were able to reach the pole (the first ones to do so), while in 1992 the depth exceeded 3.0 meters and it took much work by a nuclear-powered ice breaker to reach the same position. In 2003 a nuclear ice breaker was unable to reach the North Pole in the time available, as 3-meter-thick ice was encountered at only 84°N. There is much conjecture as to whether global warming may affect sea-ice thickness and permit easier navigational access...

Atmosphere

Atmosphere   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,482 words
Illustration(s):
2

...system. (This prediction is somewhat counterintuitive, because the Sun is gradually consuming its nuclear fuel as it converts hydrogen to helium; however, it is a standard feature of virtually all solar evolution models.) If the atmospheric CO 2 concentration on the early Earth were the same as today, and if no other greenhouse gases besides water vapor were present in significant amounts, this decrease in solar luminosity would have caused the oceans to freeze over completely. The geologic record, however, indicates that liquid water has been present on...

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