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nuclear Freeze

During the Cold War, several periods of protest against nuclear weapons took place in the United States. By far the largest protest campaign involved the nuclear freeze movement. This ...

nuclear winter scenarios

nuclear winter scenarios   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...freeze would be the generation of large quantities of water vapour which would condense and fall as heavy rain. This would tend to wash out the suspended soot and dust from the atmosphere. Wash-out was not allowed for in the TTAPS model. The ozone layer might be damaged by the release of nitrogen oxides from nuclear explosions. The original predictions came from a simple computer model and, as more realistic three-dimensional models were run, the more apocalyptic claims fell away. While the climate models that have been developed assume that nuclear...

water and water types

water and water types   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,597 words
Illustration(s):
3

...1). All three states coexist in equilibrium at the triple point for H 2 O near 0.01 °C (273K), 0.006 bar (0.0006 MPa) (Tr. pt, Fig. 1). Cirrus clouds form at triple-point conditions. At °C and surface pressure, liquid water freezes to become solid. Along the solid (ice I–liquid) boundary, increasing pressure causes liquid water to freeze at a lower temperature. Conversely, ice skaters glide effortlessly over the ice as their weight ( P ) induces melting; beneath their blades a two-phase region develops: a thin film of water over ice. Along the vapour–liquid...

Big Bang

Big Bang   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,946 words

...the more distinctive cosmic forces of later epochs do not yet exist. Every millilitre of the expanding space nevertheless carries the genetic codes for making them. Each force will appear in its turn as the expansion reduces the temperature to a critical level at which it freezes out. First the electronuclear force splits into the colour force of chromodynamics, which operates at short range on heavy particles of matter, and the electroweak force, a hot version of the familiar electric force of electrodynamics. When the temperature has shed a dozen...

Extremophiles

Extremophiles   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,356 words

...in Antarctica seemed more challenging. Penguins huddle together in the winter darkness to minimize their heat loss. On the other hand the nematode Panagrolaimus davidi , a worm almost too small to see, which lives among algae and moss on ice-free edges of Antarctica, regularly freezes solid each winter. It can chill out to minus 35°C with virtually all its metabolism switched off, and then revive in the spring. In laboratory tests, it can go down to minus 80°C without problems. Investigating the nematode's survival strategy, Wharton found that the rate of...

Plasma crystals

Plasma crystals  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...produced by meteors burning up in the atmosphere, and also by dust from the surface mixing with air electrified by lightning strokes, ultraviolet rays from the Sun, and cosmic rays from the Galaxy. Dust grains play a daily role in providing the nuclei on which water condenses or freezes, to make rain and snow. Whether the shadow force speeds their growth to an effective size, for cloud formation, is a now a matter for investigation. Smart dust Plasma crystals give scientists the chance to study analogues of atomic latticework on a vastly enlarged scale....

Plate motions

Plate motions   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,688 words

...gravity, is sustained by energy released by radioactive materials present in the rocks of the Earth's interior. You can think of all activity at the surface as a direct or indirect result of heat trying to escape. Eventually it will succeed to such an extent that the planet will freeze, as its neighbour Mars has done already, and geological action will cease. A pan of water carries heat from the stove to the air, by the hottest water rising and cooled water sinking back again. Convection of a similar kind must operate, however sluggishly, inside the Earth. Even...

True Seals

True Seals   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
13,702 words
Illustration(s):
9

...June and may continue into July. Most Baikal seals are solitary. Longevity: males 52 years, females 56. Caspian seal Pusa caspica Found in the landlocked, saline Caspian Sea, sometimes entering rivers. During breeding season, they concentrate at shallow N end of lake, which freezes over. During summer, they move to water in the deeper middle and S portion. Population said to number approximately 500,000–600,000 but concerns about its status persist. head-tail length both sexes around 130–140cm; weight 50–60kg. Form: gray back with lighter gray sides and...

Sea Ice

Sea Ice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,223 words
Illustration(s):
5

...may still be close to 4°C. Thus a lake can freeze early while considerable heat remains at depth. When the salinity exceeds 24.7 psu (practical salinity units, equivalent to parts per thousand), there is no temperature of maximum density, and convection continues down to the freezing point (−1.8°C for typical sea water). The whole upper water column, down to the level of a density gradient (the pycnocline), has to reach the freezing point before ice can form at the surface. A sea therefore takes longer to freeze over than a lake. A salinity of 24.7 psu...

North Pole

North Pole   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...of sea ice at 90° north latitude: In 1991 it was barely 1.2 meters thick and 2 diesel-powered ice breakers were able to reach the pole (the first ones to do so), while in 1992 the depth exceeded 3.0 meters and it took much work by a nuclear-powered ice breaker to reach the same position. In 2003 a nuclear ice breaker was unable to reach the North Pole in the time available, as 3-meter-thick ice was encountered at only 84°N. There is much conjecture as to whether global warming may affect sea-ice thickness and permit easier navigational access...

Indigenous American Agricultural Contributions to Modern Global Food Systems

Indigenous American Agricultural Contributions to Modern Global Food Systems   Reference library

Maria C. Bruno

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
15,345 words
Illustration(s):
4

...clever ways to freeze-dry potatoes so that they could be stored for up to 20 years. As the Russian-born and US-trained anthropologist John Murra ( 1960 ) described, they “domesticated the cold” putting piles of tubers out to freeze in the below-zero temperatures common in the dry austral winter season. In the daytime, women and men “dance” or step over the piles of potatoes to squeeze out the water ( Figure 2 ). They freeze again over night, get stomped and dried again in the bright daylight, and in two to three days are freeze-dried. These potatoes...

Atmosphere

Atmosphere   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,482 words
Illustration(s):
2

...system. (This prediction is somewhat counterintuitive, because the Sun is gradually consuming its nuclear fuel as it converts hydrogen to helium; however, it is a standard feature of virtually all solar evolution models.) If the atmospheric CO 2 concentration on the early Earth were the same as today, and if no other greenhouse gases besides water vapor were present in significant amounts, this decrease in solar luminosity would have caused the oceans to freeze over completely. The geologic record, however, indicates that liquid water has been present on...

Human Impacts

Human Impacts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in species distributions, climate warming may lead to reduced biodiversity in streams as temperatures in the headwaters and downstream reaches become less variable. Similar effects are predicted for temperate lakes, where the thermal environment is determined by the timing of freeze and thaw, the degree of stratification, and the depth of the thermocline. Some species will be at risk of extinction because of changes in their thermal niches or through competition from species that were previously excluded (Graves and Reavey, 1996). Wetlands are also sensitive...

New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act

New Zealand Nuclear Free Zone, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act (1987)   Reference library

Alyn WARE

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
4,567 words

...and sharing of certain military intelligence, and a diplomatic freeze. The United States also requested a visit of the USS Buchanan , which was refused by the Lange government on the basis that the Buchanan was capable of launching nuclear depth bombs. New Zealand emerged relatively unscathed from the trade embargo, thanks partly to a so-called girlcott campaign in the United States. A girlcott is the opposite of a boycott; U.S. supporters actively and publicly bought New Zealand “nuclear-free” products and successfully lobbied their congressional...

Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal   Reference library

Douglas R. WEINER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,293 words

...square kilometers, about the size of the US state of Maryland. The flush time, the time it takes to replace all the water in Lake Baikal, is four hundred years ( Di Duca 2010 , 3–4 ). The lake’s water is very clear, with visibility up to 40 meters beneath the surface. The lake freezes over from December to May with an ice crust 70–115 centimeters thick, and ice floes may persist into June. Native Species Biologically the lake is rich in native species. More than 2,500 freshwater biota have been recorded in Lake Baikal ( Sigee 2005 , 60–62 ). Of the 1,550...

Oceans and Seas

Oceans and Seas   Reference library

Poul HOLM

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
4,102 words

...and fertilizes and erodes the land. The average salinity of the oceans and seas is 3.5 percent, deviations being determined by evaporation and inflow of freshwater. Ocean surface temperatures around the equator may be 30°C or more, decreasing toward the poles, where seawater freezes at –2°C. Below-surface temperature is fairly constant, decreasing to around 0°C in the deep ocean. The largest ocean is the Pacific, which has a surface area of 166 million square kilometers, almost the size of the three other oceans together: the Atlantic (84 million square kilometers)...

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