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nuclear Freeze

During the Cold War, several periods of protest against nuclear weapons took place in the United States. By far the largest protest campaign involved the nuclear freeze movement. This ...

nuclear freeze

nuclear freeze   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... freeze a halt in the construction and/or testing of nuclear...

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
20,780 words
Illustration(s):
3

... and Argentina remained strained for several years, with both parties refusing to declare a cease of hostilities and mend diplomatic relations. A détente process started in 1989 led to a set of agreements finalized in Madrid in February 1990 . These agreements included a freeze of sovereignty issues, restoration of diplomatic relations, and a series of confidence-building measures that have been quite successful. The Antarctic Treaty The Antarctic Treaty is an international agreement focused on preserving Antarctica for peaceful purposes, mainly for...

Peace Action

Peace Action   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...nuclear disarmament organization in the United States. Originally known as the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE), it was founded in 1957 by prominent citizens concerned about the hazards associated with nuclear testing and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 , which halted atmospheric nuclear tests, is considered the organization's greatest achievement. SANE merged in 1987 with the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign (FREEZE), which originated in response to President Ronald Reagan 's nuclear...

National Committee For a Sane Nuclear Policy

National Committee For a Sane Nuclear Policy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...to “freezenuclear weapons (to prevent proposed escalation of the arms race ). In 1987 , the two largest peace organizations in the country merged into SANE/FREEZE: Campaign for Global Security, an organization of over 240 local groups, 24 state affiliates, and 170,000 members. The goals of SANE/FREEZE remained a comprehensive ban on nuclear testing as the first step toward complete disarmament and a redirection of military spending to social programs. Reverend Coffin served as president until the end of the Cold War in 1989 . In 1993 , SANE/FREEZE...

Antinuclear Protest Movements

Antinuclear Protest Movements   Reference library

Lawrence S. Wittner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...by the advent of the hawkish administration of President Ronald Reagan and the deployment of a new generation of nuclear missiles in Europe—led to a new and more powerful wave of popular protest. Organizations like SANE, Mobilization for Survival, and Physicians for Social Responsibility organized a mammoth antinuclear effort, with the largest political demonstrations in American history. The Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign garnered the support of the major churches, unions, the Democratic Party, and—according to polls—70 percent or more of the...

Nuclear Protest Movements

Nuclear Protest Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...administration, with its glib talk of nuclear war, convinced millions of Americans that their lives were once more in peril. New groups like Mobilization for Survival and Physicians for Social Responsibility grew rapidly, as did older ones, like SANE, that had fallen into decay. In June 1982 , nearly a million Americans flocked to a New York City rally against nuclear weapons—the largest demonstration in U.S. history. Meanwhile, there emerged a broadly gauged Nuclear Freeze Campaign. Designed to halt the nuclear arms race through bilateral action, it drew...

Strategic Arms Limitation/Strategic Arms Reduction Talks

Strategic Arms Limitation/Strategic Arms Reduction Talks   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Current Version:
2004

...in January 1964 the USA suggested a bilateral verifiable freeze on the number and characteristics of both nations' strategic nuclear offensive and defensive vehicles. Meanwhile other developments threatened to upset the fragile strategic nuclear balance. Other nations had fielded nuclear weapons: the UK in 1952 , France in 1960 , China in 1964 . In 1966 the USSR introduced Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) defence, followed by the USA in 1967 , but discussion between the two superpowers continued. In June 1967 Pres Lyndon B. Johnson met Soviet...

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy   Reference library

Lawrence Freedman, Timothy J. Lynch, George Bunn, Timothy J. Lynch, Joseph M. Siracusa, and Joseph M. Siracusa

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...After all, the NPT is specifically designed to freeze the status quo. The leading nuclear states party to the treaty naturally regarded this as a positive arrangement because it preserved their status while retaining their freedom with respect to modernizing their own nuclear arsenals, which they have clearly done. But other countries such as India saw this freezing of the status quo as exclusionary on the part of the established nuclear powers and bristled at what it perceived to be the nuclear double standards of the West, Russia, and China. In any...

Fellowship of Reconciliation

Fellowship of Reconciliation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Current Version:
2004

...when executive secretary Al Hassler urged support for the Buddhist pacifists' “Third Force” solution, while others called for immediate unilateral U.S. troop withdrawal. After Vietnam, FOR investigated events in Nicaragua between the Sandinistas and contras, and joined the Nuclear Freeze Campaign of the 1980s. Prior to the Persian Gulf War , the Fellowship led a peace mission with medical supplies to refugees in Jordan and Iraq. In the mid‐1990s, it instituted a Civilian Casualty Fund to aid Bosnian Muslims. FOR membership in 1998 was about 8,000—the...

Peace Movements

Peace Movements   Reference library

Charles Chatfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to promote broader economic and social change. The movement's radical phase peaked in 1968–1970 , after which a liberal antiwar constituency became dominant. When the nuclear-weapons issue again arose in the 1980s, peace groups helped mobilize still another large political coalition: the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign to halt the U.S.–Soviet arms race. Although Congress compromised the freeze proposal and its popular support dissolved after President Ronald Reagan proposed his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983 , the campaign revived arms-control...

Peace and Antiwar Movements

Peace and Antiwar Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Current Version:
2004

...in the spiraling nuclear arms race began under President Jimmy Carter and accelerated sharply under Ronald Reagan . Large‐scale protest gathered force in Europe, while in the United States a coalition of peace groups backed the idea of a mutual, verifiable freeze in nuclear weapons. Although coordinated by a national organization, the Nuclear Freeze Campaign, the freeze reflected grassroots activism that was elicited by growing public awareness of the destructive realities of a nuclear exchange. An important result of the Nuclear Freeze Campaign was to...

Strategy

Strategy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of the public, the Reagan administration's position on nuclear war planning was not significantly different from that of its predecessors. However, it had brought to the declarative level, and thus made openly public, the assumptions upon which the operational level planners had been working for years—and that had shocked a considerable and influential segment of the public. The reaction that set in during 1982–83 , symbolized by the Nuclear Freeze Campaign and an unusual pastoral letter against nuclear war from the Roman Catholic bishops' conference in...

Arms Control and Disarmament: Non Nuclear

Arms Control and Disarmament: Non Nuclear   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...recent. In 1899 and 1907 , Czar Nicholas II of Russia instigated The Hague Peace Conference with the declared aim of ensuring universal peace and reducing excessive armaments. The Czar's motives were not entirely altruistic. He hoped to freeze the military modernization efforts of the Austro‐Hungarian and German empires and cause them to spend on industry and commerce, not armaments. The Conferences outlawed the use of dumdum bullets and asphyxiating gases; regulated the use of underwater mines; improved arbitration procedures; and codified certain laws...

Industry and War

Industry and War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...half of all men over the age of sixty‐five were in the workforce during that war, compared to 2 percent in the 1990s. The war also saw a tremendous increase in union membership, but union leaders had to accept modest wage increases and agree to a “no‐strike” pledge. A government freeze on prices, wages, salaries, and rents made inflation less of a problem than in World War I, but these controls were widely resented and a black market of troubling proportions emerged. Great advances in technology and scientific research were achieved through war...

Film, War and the Military in

Film, War and the Military in   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...willing to use the atomic bomb as a focus for antiwar statements. In particular, Fail Safe ( 1964 ), Dr. Strangelove ( 1964 ), and The Bedford Incident ( 1965 ) each argued that the Pentagon did not have the control it claimed over the use of nuclear weapons and that an accident could lead to nuclear holocaust. The air force and navy refused to cooperate on any of these productions. And the navy would have nothing to do with The Americanization of Emily ( 1964 ), in which for the first time a Hollywood studio portrayed a U.S. military officer as a...

World War II

World War II (1939–1945)   Reference library

Donald Cameron Watt, Mark A. Stoler, William L. O’Neill, Michael S. Sherry, Justus D. Doenecke, and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...on armed and escorted U.S. merchant vessels, and the United States found itself engaged in a full-scale if undeclared naval war with German submarines in the Atlantic. War officially came in the Pacific when Japan responded to increasing U.S. economic sanctions, including a total freeze in the summer on Japanese assets, with a decision to go to war against Britain and the United States in an effort to obtain economic self-sufficiency before the sanctions crippled its war-making potential. The 7 December surprise naval air attack on Pearl Harbor was designed to...

World War II (1939–45)

World War II (1939–45)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...on armed and escorted U.S. merchant vessels, and the United States found itself engaged in a full‐scale if undeclared naval war with German submarines in the Atlantic. War officially came in the Pacific when Japan responded to increasing U.S. economic sanctions, including a total freeze in the summer on Japanese assets, with a decision to go to war against Britain and the United States in an effort to obtain economic self‐sufficiency before the sanctions crippled its warmaking potential. The 7 December surprise naval air attack on Pearl Harbor was designed to...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Ian Nish, Gordon Daniels, Stephen Large, Gordon Daniels, Akashi Yoji, Ian Gow, John Chapman, Peter Davies, and Gordon Daniels

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
21,629 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the price of many goods was frozen at their 18 September level. By December even the distribution of charcoal was subjected to government ordinance. Despite this fine mesh of official regulations, Japan's consumer economy still proved difficult to control. The October price freeze was impossible to enforce and black marketeering became an established feature of city life. Perhaps the strangest product of the new, supposedly moralistic economy, was the appearance of scrap metal dealers on annual lists of Tokyo's wealthiest citizens. By 1940 government...

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