You are looking at 1-20 of 30 entries  for:

  • All: nuclear Freeze x
clear all

View:

Overview

nuclear Freeze

During the Cold War, several periods of protest against nuclear weapons took place in the United States. By far the largest protest campaign involved the nuclear freeze movement. This ...

nuclear freeze

nuclear freeze   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... freeze a halt in the construction and/or testing of nuclear...

North Korea

North Korea  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A north-east Asian country. Consisting of the northern half of the Korean peninsula, mostly above the 38th parallel, North Korea was formed from the zone occupied by the Soviet Union at the end of ...
National Party, New Zealand

National Party, New Zealand  

Contemporary history (up to 1986)Established as New Zealand's main conservative party by a merger of the United and Reform Parties in 1936, it derived its support from rural areas and the wealthier ...
Korea, North

Korea, North   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
626 words
Illustration(s):
1

...nuclear weapons and a series of incursions into South Korean territory. A mutual cooperation treaty between the two Koreas was signed in 2000 . Kim Jong Il ( 1942–2011 ) succeeded his father as President in 1995 . Since 2006 North Korea has successfully tested nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. In 2011 , Kim Jong Il died and was succeeded by his youngest son, Kim Jong Un ( c . 1983 – ). During his first years in power Kim stepped up his rhetoric against South Korea and the USA, and rejected international demands that he end his nuclear...

Antinuclear Protest Movements.

Antinuclear Protest Movements.   Reference library

Lawrence S. Wittner

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
586 words

...by the advent of the hawkish administration of President Ronald Reagan and the deployment of a new generation of nuclear missiles in Europe—led to a new and more powerful wave of popular protest. Organizations like SANE, Mobilization for Survival, and Physicians for Social Responsibility organized a mammoth antinuclear effort, with the largest political demonstrations in American history. The Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign garnered the support of the major churches, unions, the Democratic party , and—according to polls—70 percent or more of...

Peace Movements.

Peace Movements.   Reference library

E. Charles Chatfield

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
907 words

...to promote broader economic and social change. The movement's radical phase peaked in 1968–1970 , after which a liberal antiwar constituency became dominant. When the nuclear-weapons issue again arose in the 1980s, peace groups helped mobilize still another large political coalition: the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign to halt the U.S.-Soviet arms race. Although Congress compromised the freeze proposal, and its popular support dissolved after President Ronald Reagan proposed his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983 , the campaign revived...

National Party, New Zealand

National Party, New Zealand   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
660 words

...power again in 1975 , under Muldoon 's leadership. Once in office, Muldoon defied his party's traditional commitment to market principles and deregulation. He sought to overcome the country's difficulties through a series of interventionist policies, such as wage and price freezes, protectionism to safeguard agricultural incomes, and intervention in financial markets to ensure low interest rates. This caused a party split and led to the formation of the New Zealand Party ( NZP ) in 1983 , which sought to revert to the National Party's previous policies....

Antarctica

Antarctica   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,869 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the United Kingdom, and the United States as original signatories. Since 1959 , a number of other states have joined the treaty. Notably, the treaty prohibits all military activity in Antarctica, along with the testing of nuclear weapons and the disposal of radioactive waste. The cornerstone of the treaty is found in Article IV, which freezes the status of territorial claims in Antarctica. The problems of sovereignty, therefore, have not been solved but simply set aside. In recognition of the overexploitation of Antarctic marine living resources, the 1972 ...

New Zealand

New Zealand   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,256 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... However, retrenchment proved unpopular and only voting for a third party, and provincial support for the 1981 South African (Springbok) Rugby Tour, kept National in. Meanwhile Muldoon fostered large new export and import-substitution (“Think Big”) industries. From 1982 freezes on wages, prices, rents, and interest rates were used to reduce cost-of-living increases. Unpopular with many businesspeople as well as workers, Muldoon was defeated by Labour under David Lange in 1984 . Lange's government moved largely in the monetarist and deregulatory...

Federal Government, Executive Branch

Federal Government, Executive Branch   Reference library

David K. Nicholas, Henry F. Graff, Robert David Johnson, Steven L. Rearden, Paul S. Boyer, Jesse Stiller, Richard C. Sawyer, David L. Herzberg, and Daniel J. Tichenor

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
10,273 words

...Federal regulation of energy markets was rolled back during the Reagan years, while Energy secretaries James B. Edwards and Donald P. Hodel promoted nuclear power . The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 placed the Energy Department at the center of political controversy by giving it responsibility for locating, constructing, and operating sites for the disposal of civilian and military nuclear waste. The department also monitors U.S. energy consumption and promotes new energy technologies. Department of Education (1979). Given the decentralized...

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
20,780 words
Illustration(s):
3

... and Argentina remained strained for several years, with both parties refusing to declare a cease of hostilities and mend diplomatic relations. A détente process started in 1989 led to a set of agreements finalized in Madrid in February 1990 . These agreements included a freeze of sovereignty issues, restoration of diplomatic relations, and a series of confidence-building measures that have been quite successful. The Antarctic Treaty The Antarctic Treaty is an international agreement focused on preserving Antarctica for peaceful purposes, mainly for...

Peace Action

Peace Action   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...nuclear disarmament organization in the United States. Originally known as the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE), it was founded in 1957 by prominent citizens concerned about the hazards associated with nuclear testing and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 , which halted atmospheric nuclear tests, is considered the organization's greatest achievement. SANE merged in 1987 with the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign (FREEZE), which originated in response to President Ronald Reagan 's nuclear...

National Committee For a Sane Nuclear Policy

National Committee For a Sane Nuclear Policy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...to “freezenuclear weapons (to prevent proposed escalation of the arms race ). In 1987 , the two largest peace organizations in the country merged into SANE/FREEZE: Campaign for Global Security, an organization of over 240 local groups, 24 state affiliates, and 170,000 members. The goals of SANE/FREEZE remained a comprehensive ban on nuclear testing as the first step toward complete disarmament and a redirection of military spending to social programs. Reverend Coffin served as president until the end of the Cold War in 1989 . In 1993 , SANE/FREEZE...

Antinuclear Protest Movements

Antinuclear Protest Movements   Reference library

Lawrence S. Wittner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...by the advent of the hawkish administration of President Ronald Reagan and the deployment of a new generation of nuclear missiles in Europe—led to a new and more powerful wave of popular protest. Organizations like SANE, Mobilization for Survival, and Physicians for Social Responsibility organized a mammoth antinuclear effort, with the largest political demonstrations in American history. The Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign garnered the support of the major churches, unions, the Democratic Party, and—according to polls—70 percent or more of the...

Nuclear Protest Movements

Nuclear Protest Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...administration, with its glib talk of nuclear war, convinced millions of Americans that their lives were once more in peril. New groups like Mobilization for Survival and Physicians for Social Responsibility grew rapidly, as did older ones, like SANE, that had fallen into decay. In June 1982 , nearly a million Americans flocked to a New York City rally against nuclear weapons—the largest demonstration in U.S. history. Meanwhile, there emerged a broadly gauged Nuclear Freeze Campaign. Designed to halt the nuclear arms race through bilateral action, it drew...

Strategic Arms Limitation/Strategic Arms Reduction Talks

Strategic Arms Limitation/Strategic Arms Reduction Talks   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...in January 1964 the USA suggested a bilateral verifiable freeze on the number and characteristics of both nations' strategic nuclear offensive and defensive vehicles. Meanwhile other developments threatened to upset the fragile strategic nuclear balance. Other nations had fielded nuclear weapons: the UK in 1952 , France in 1960 , China in 1964 . In 1966 the USSR introduced Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) defence, followed by the USA in 1967 , but discussion between the two superpowers continued. In June 1967 Pres Lyndon B. Johnson met Soviet...

Peace Movements

Peace Movements   Reference library

E. Charles Chatfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to promote broader economic and social change. The movement's radical phase peaked in 1968–1970 , after which a liberal antiwar constituency became dominant. When the nuclear-weapons issue again arose in the 1980s, peace groups helped mobilize still another large political coalition: the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign to halt the U.S.–Soviet arms race. Although Congress compromised the freeze proposal and its popular support dissolved after President Ronald Reagan proposed his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983 , the campaign revived arms-control...

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy   Reference library

Lawrence Freedman, Timothy J. Lynch, George Bunn, Timothy J. Lynch, Joseph M. Siracusa, and Joseph M. Siracusa

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...After all, the NPT is specifically designed to freeze the status quo. The leading nuclear states party to the treaty naturally regarded this as a positive arrangement because it preserved their status while retaining their freedom with respect to modernizing their own nuclear arsenals, which they have clearly done. But other countries such as India saw this freezing of the status quo as exclusionary on the part of the established nuclear powers and bristled at what it perceived to be the nuclear double standards of the West, Russia, and China. In any...

Fellowship of Reconciliation

Fellowship of Reconciliation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...when executive secretary Al Hassler urged support for the Buddhist pacifists' “Third Force” solution, while others called for immediate unilateral U.S. troop withdrawal. After Vietnam, FOR investigated events in Nicaragua between the Sandinistas and contras, and joined the Nuclear Freeze Campaign of the 1980s. Prior to the Persian Gulf War , the Fellowship led a peace mission with medical supplies to refugees in Jordan and Iraq. In the mid‐1990s, it instituted a Civilian Casualty Fund to aid Bosnian Muslims. FOR membership in 1998 was about 8,000—the...

Peace Movements

Peace Movements   Reference library

Charles Chatfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to promote broader economic and social change. The movement's radical phase peaked in 1968–1970 , after which a liberal antiwar constituency became dominant. When the nuclear-weapons issue again arose in the 1980s, peace groups helped mobilize still another large political coalition: the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign to halt the U.S.–Soviet arms race. Although Congress compromised the freeze proposal and its popular support dissolved after President Ronald Reagan proposed his Strategic Defense Initiative in March 1983 , the campaign revived arms-control...

View: