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nuclear Freeze

During the Cold War, several periods of protest against nuclear weapons took place in the United States. By far the largest protest campaign involved the nuclear freeze movement. This ...

nuclear freeze

nuclear freeze   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... freeze a halt in the construction and/or testing of nuclear...

Nuclear Freeze

Nuclear Freeze   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,610 words

...been founded in the campaign against nuclear testing. This step marked the symbolic end of the nuclear freeze movement. Impact The movement’s goal of a nuclear weapons freeze never became part of U.S. policy. Nevertheless, the nuclear freeze movement did influence policy. Knopf ( 1998 ) showed that the nuclear freeze movement helped cause two changes in Reagan administration policy. First, the nuclear freeze movement helped convince the administration to resume nuclear arms control talks much sooner than it had intended. When Reagan took office, his...

nuclear Freeze

nuclear Freeze  

During the Cold War, several periods of protest against nuclear weapons took place in the United States. By far the largest protest campaign involved the nuclear freeze movement. This movement ...
Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy

Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy  

The Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy was founded as a result of growing U.S. public concern about the nuclear arms race. Responding to an invitation by two highly respected ...
Nuclear Nonproliferation

Nuclear Nonproliferation  

The most technically challenging part of building nuclear weapons is the production of fuel for the weapon. The same process that enriches uranium (increasing the ratio of 235U92 in natural ...
Nuclear Test Ban

Nuclear Test Ban  

(1963)An international agreement not to test nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, in outer space, or under water, signed by the USA, the Soviet Union, and the UK (but not France). On 1 July 1968 the ...
International Campaigns for Nuclear Disarmament

International Campaigns for Nuclear Disarmament  

The struggle against nuclear weapons began even before they existed.1945–1954During World War II, many scientists working on the Manhattan Project (the U.S. effort to produce an atomic bomb) ...
unilateralism

unilateralism  

Literally ‘one‐sidedness’, although unilateralists protested vigorously in the 1980s when opponents so translated it. A British movement against domestic involvement with nuclear weapons. All ...
Missile Defense Issues

Missile Defense Issues  

The need for a defense against ballistic missile attack first arose in 1944. At the end of World War II, Nazi Germany launched V-2 rockets against Allied targets in Europe ...
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks  

(SALT)Agreements between the USA and the Soviet Union, aimed at limiting the production and deployment of nuclear weapons. A first round of meetings (1969–72) produced the SALT I Agreement, which ...
United States Peace Movements, 1800–1945

United States Peace Movements, 1800–1945  

The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945, although welcomed by some, provoked an immediate outcry. The many peace movement voices, silent or actively prowar, again ...
North Korea

North Korea  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
A north-east Asian country. Consisting of the northern half of the Korean peninsula, mostly above the 38th parallel, North Korea was formed from the zone occupied by the Soviet Union at the end of ...
National Party, New Zealand

National Party, New Zealand  

Contemporary history (up to 1986)Established as New Zealand's main conservative party by a merger of the United and Reform Parties in 1936, it derived its support from rural areas and the wealthier ...
Peace Action

Peace Action   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...nuclear disarmament organization in the United States. Originally known as the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE), it was founded in 1957 by prominent citizens concerned about the hazards associated with nuclear testing and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 , which halted atmospheric nuclear tests, is considered the organization's greatest achievement. SANE merged in 1987 with the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign (FREEZE), which originated in response to President Ronald Reagan 's nuclear...

National Committee For a Sane Nuclear Policy

National Committee For a Sane Nuclear Policy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...to “freezenuclear weapons (to prevent proposed escalation of the arms race ). In 1987 , the two largest peace organizations in the country merged into SANE/FREEZE: Campaign for Global Security, an organization of over 240 local groups, 24 state affiliates, and 170,000 members. The goals of SANE/FREEZE remained a comprehensive ban on nuclear testing as the first step toward complete disarmament and a redirection of military spending to social programs. Reverend Coffin served as president until the end of the Cold War in 1989 . In 1993 , SANE/FREEZE...

Antinuclear Protest Movements

Antinuclear Protest Movements   Reference library

Lawrence S. Wittner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...by the advent of the hawkish administration of President Ronald Reagan and the deployment of a new generation of nuclear missiles in Europe—led to a new and more powerful wave of popular protest. Organizations like SANE, Mobilization for Survival, and Physicians for Social Responsibility organized a mammoth antinuclear effort, with the largest political demonstrations in American history. The Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign garnered the support of the major churches, unions, the Democratic Party, and—according to polls—70 percent or more of the...

Antinuclear Protest Movements.

Antinuclear Protest Movements.   Reference library

Lawrence S. Wittner

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
586 words

...by the advent of the hawkish administration of President Ronald Reagan and the deployment of a new generation of nuclear missiles in Europe—led to a new and more powerful wave of popular protest. Organizations like SANE, Mobilization for Survival, and Physicians for Social Responsibility organized a mammoth antinuclear effort, with the largest political demonstrations in American history. The Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign garnered the support of the major churches, unions, the Democratic party , and—according to polls—70 percent or more of...

Nuclear Protest Movements

Nuclear Protest Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...administration, with its glib talk of nuclear war, convinced millions of Americans that their lives were once more in peril. New groups like Mobilization for Survival and Physicians for Social Responsibility grew rapidly, as did older ones, like SANE, that had fallen into decay. In June 1982 , nearly a million Americans flocked to a New York City rally against nuclear weapons—the largest demonstration in U.S. history. Meanwhile, there emerged a broadly gauged Nuclear Freeze Campaign. Designed to halt the nuclear arms race through bilateral action, it drew...

nuclear winter scenarios

nuclear winter scenarios   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...freeze would be the generation of large quantities of water vapour which would condense and fall as heavy rain. This would tend to wash out the suspended soot and dust from the atmosphere. Wash-out was not allowed for in the TTAPS model. The ozone layer might be damaged by the release of nitrogen oxides from nuclear explosions. The original predictions came from a simple computer model and, as more realistic three-dimensional models were run, the more apocalyptic claims fell away. While the climate models that have been developed assume that nuclear...

Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy

Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,013 words

...Freeze Campaign to form Sane/Freeze. In 1993 , the group was renamed Peace Action, which has continued since then as America’s largest peace organization. [ See also Anti-Communism and Peace Movements ; Antinuclear Power Protests in the United States ; Cousins, Norman ; Nuclear Disarmament, International Campaigns for ; Nuclear Freeze ; Nuclear Nonproliferation ; and Nuclear Test Ban ] Bibliography Katz, Milton S . Ban the Bomb: A History of SANE, the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy . New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. Stassen, Glen Harold , and ...

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