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market clearing

The process of moving to a position where the quantity supplied is equal to the quantity demanded, or the assumption that economic forces always ensure the equality of supply and demand. ...

Agents and Managers

Agents and Managers   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,579 words

...Association, 1994). See also Hugh Barty-King , The Baltic Exchange: The History of a Unique Market (London: Hutchinson, 1977); Gordon Boyce , Information, Mediation, and Institutional Development: The Rise of Large-Scale Enterprise in British Shipping, 1870–1919 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995); and Yrjö Kaukiainen , International Freight Markets in the 1830s and 1840s: The Experience of a Major Finnish Shipowner, in Global Markets: The Internationalization of the Sea Transport Industries since 1850 , eds. Gelina Harlaftis and ...

Glasgow

Glasgow   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
884 words

...Americas, Africa, India , the Far East, and the Pacific, opening the China and Burma coasts, the Yangtze (Chang Jiang), and the Irrawaddy (whose “flotilla” was Glasgow-owned). In consequence, Glasgow’s fleet rose from 212,000 tons in 1860 to 2,026,954 in 1910 , and tonnage clearing with cargo rose from 252,680 in 1861 to 3,882,335 in 1911 . In this period the large sailing fleet (more than 500,000 tons in 1895 ) was drastically reduced. Such growth required a new port—several times. In the seventeenth century Glasgow merchants began transshipping goods...

Navigational Manuals

Navigational Manuals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,331 words

...the practice of observing the variation of the compass. During the second half of the eighteenth century, manuals were enriched with sections on the newly tested methods for the determination of longitude, namely by lunar distances and by chronometer; on various techniques for clearing the distance and solving the double-altitude problem; and on the construction and use of new instruments such as the Hadley quadrant, the sextant, the marine chronometer, and the azimuth compass. Yet another transformation took place a century later, with the appearance of new...

North Sea

North Sea   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
6,633 words
Illustration(s):
2

...smaller, neutral North Sea navies no longer counted in the calculations of the great powers. Neither singly nor in combination could they defend neutral rights beyond their territorial waters. Within those boundaries, however, they played a vital role in asserting sovereignty, clearing mines, and escorting merchantmen. The Norwegian navy was especially taxed with having to protect a coastal route that was of vital importance to German merchant vessels seeking to evade the British blockade. The tightening of the blockade and the encroachments of German U-boats...

Scheldt, battle of the

Scheldt, battle of the (1944)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Allies badly needed a large working port by late 1944 , their logistic tail still stretching back to the artificial port at Arromanches (none of the well-demolished French ports were functioning yet). Montgomery might have concentrated on clearing the Scheldt estuary from Antwerp to the sea, but instead he launched MARKET GARDEN, in the hope of taking a short cut into Germany. The defeat at Arnhem removed any hopes of gaining Rotterdam or Amsterdam as alternative ports and belatedly he ordered Simonds's First Canadian Army to clear the Scheldt. The...

France, Liberation of

France, Liberation of (1944–45)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Germans successfully withdrew more than half of their forces from southern France before the Allied armies effected a juncture on 11 September . Dever's army group was then ordered to protect the Allied southern flank during the drive into Germany. Meanwhile, U.S. efforts in clearing the Brittany peninsula to the west came to naught. After a stubborn fight, the Germans finally surrendered Brest on 25 August , but not before destroying nearly all of the port facilities. With the opening of Marseilles in the South, of Cherbourg, and with the imminent capture...

Baltics

Baltics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...mercenaries in Russian principalities. Military equipment was primitive. Rich nobles owned some armor and good swords, but poor men were armed with little more than clubs, spears, and rocks; almost everyone rode the little ponies that thrived on the rich pastures in the forest clearings and along the major rivers. Although romantics see this as an idyllic situation, warfare was limited only by the lack of incentive to conduct sieges. Life was hardly disturbed by the passage of Viking warriors along the great rivers from the Baltic Sea to Russia and thence on to...

War Art

War Art   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...official war artists: Nora Heysen , Stella Bowen and the aforementioned Sybil Craig. Classified as professionals, all women artists received similar pay to the men but only Nora Heysen served in the operational areas, recording the activities of the nurses at the Casualty Clearing Stations in New Guinea. Initially, the war artist appointments were the responsibility of the Department of Information, who administered the program until October 1941 . At this time, control of the program passed to the trustees and director of the AWM (under Colonel John...

Scheldt Estuary, battle for

Scheldt Estuary, battle for   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,256 words
Illustration(s):
1

...17 September, it did start attacking the network of gun batteries and other defences sited on Walcheren Island which dominated the mouth of the Scheldt. On 15 September Crerar's 1st Corps was committed to guarding the flank of the Second British Army during MARKET-GARDEN, so responsibility for clearing the banks of the Scheldt devolved on his 2nd Corps. His plans included a landing on Walcheren, once its dykes had been breached by Bomber Command and most of the inland German defences flooded or isolated, and the seizure of the area around Roosendaal and...

Montgomery, Field Marshal Sir Bernard

Montgomery, Field Marshal Sir Bernard (1887–1976)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...but with the Germans in full retreat he made two errors: he failed to move beyond Antwerp to cut off the German forces which had retreated on to the Beveland peninsula, and he then chose to launch MARKET-GARDEN to gain a bridgehead beyond the lower Rhine at Arnhem instead of clearing the approaches to the Scheldt Estuary. However, it was not Antwerp or MARKET-GARDEN that nearly proved Montgomery's undoing, but his astonishing insouciance. His increasing fame fed an egocentricity that made him incapable of understanding that co-operation was the basis of...

Germany, battle for

Germany, battle for   Reference library

Earl Ziemke

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,607 words
Illustration(s):
4

...but not over concerns from which he could profit. Nazi Germany's fate was sealed. The war was about to become a contest for shares in the victory, and the German capital, symbol of German militarism and expansionism, was regarded as the grand prize ( see Berlin, fall of ). 1. Clearing the Rhineland Though they had fought their first major battles on German soil as early as the previous autumn ( see Aachen and Huertgen Forest ), there was grave doubt that Eisenhower 's armies were credible contenders in a race for Berlin on 28 January, the day they...

raw and synthetic materials

raw and synthetic materials   Reference library

Richard Overy

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...of Lend-Lease in 1941 and the onset of American rearmament led to an unprecedented degree of collaboration between the empire and the USA in assessing future raw material needs and agreeing to their distribution between the various economies. In May 1942 an Empire Clearing House was set up for materials produced in the British colonies and dominions. In January 1942 a Combined Raw Materials Board was set up to oversee the whole raw material effort of the Allies and to decide on allocation with the USSR as well. Nearly 60% of the Lend-Lease...

Grand Alliance

Grand Alliance   Reference library

Michael Howard

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...its cities in the winter of 1940–1 ( see Blitz ), the UK could do little more than defend the sea lanes across which came the supplies from North America that enabled it to survive. In the Middle East, early successes against the Italians had held out further false hopes of clearing the shores of North Africa and building up an alliance of Greece, Yugoslavia, and Turkey to contain German expansion in south-east Europe. But here again the speed and decisiveness of German operations in the Balkan and Western Desert campaigns in the spring of 1941 threw...

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