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fundamental rule of psychoanalysis

The principle according to which a patient undergoing psychoanalysis should engage wholeheartedly in free association. Also called the basic rule of psychoanalysis. See also ...

Gender

Gender   Reference library

Deborah F. Sawyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,164 words

...leading to the separation of Psyche and Po from the rest of the women’s groups. This rift reached beyond the borders of France, manifesting itself globally in the repeated clash between the Psyche and Po group and their adherents on one side and egalitarian feminists and lesbian separatist groups on the other. The spirit and momentum of Paris in 1968 united the theorists of Psyche and Po, and while over time each evolved their ideas as individual thinkers, they shared another foundational influence: the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan. Feminist...

Reformation Studies

Reformation Studies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
10,576 words

...survey of actual Protestant communities in their formative stages, including their rivalries and doctrinal quarrels, and for its sense of immediacy and authenticity, which no single author could convey. A Legacy of Problems: The Seventeenth Century The Reformation's legacy of unresolved problems in religious allegiance and political organization provided much of the agenda for seventeenth-century scholars. Moreover, the questioning of tradition on an unprecedented scale at the end of the century brought with it a fundamental reexamination of the...

Sexuality

Sexuality   Reference library

Teresa J. Hornsby

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,007 words

...begin to associate that pleasure with something outside of ourselves; desire has a source and an object: the mother’s nipple, her gaze, the sound of her voice. In this phase, famously known as the mirror phase, we see a reflection of our self; we know that we are both self and other. We are beginning to move away from a sense of wholeness, from a self-identity whose desires are fundamental and somewhat simple. Our self in the mirror is “other” in that it is “me” over there. Yet, it is a perfect image, one that we despise because it is better, but one that we...

Commerce, Consumerism, and Christianity in America

Commerce, Consumerism, and Christianity in America   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Religion in America

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,930 words

...secular forms of community and entertainment. 30 These figures’ mainstream appeal comes from their use of therapeutic culture and the “mind cure” tradition. Rooted in the early 20th-century philosophies of New Thought and psychoanalysis, a broad range of Christian and “spiritual” leaders in the United States have proffered a vision of “do it yourself” transformation that privileges mind over matter. If you think it, you can do it. 31 As scholars of consumerism like William Leach and T. J. Jackson Lears have argued, the history of shopping and...

Liberalism in American Religious History

Liberalism in American Religious History   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Religion in America

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,005 words

...the fundamental law of the new nation, though the meaning of these Constitutional rights and limitations would evolve considerably across the 19th and 20th centuries . Most particularly, many states maintained established religion in the early national period, a practice that did not end until Massachusetts formally disestablished it in 1833 . And for more than another century, until the post–World War II period, other forms of state-sponsored religion, including required Bible reading and prayer in public schools, persisted until the Supreme Court ruled...

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy   Reference library

Alexandra Pârvan

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,958 words

... 38–41). At about the time Freud invented psychoanalysis, treating Anna O. together with Josef Breuer ( 1895 ), and writing The Interpretation of Dreams ( 1900 ) and The Psychopathology of Everyday Life ( 1901 ), William James found in Aug. a point of reference for the study of the divided will and made further use of Aug. for some of his arguments in The Varieties of Religious Experience ( 1902 ), which is now a classic book on psychology of religion (James 130–2; 265; 360...

Jung, Carl Gustav

Jung, Carl Gustav (1875–1961)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
999 words

...unconscious ( 1909 , but revised in 1916 ); 4) the theory of the collective unconscious, originally called “the Land of the Dead” ( 1916 ); 5) the theory of the dominants ( 1917 ), borrowed from the work of the neo-vitalist botanist Johannes Reinke , or Platonic archetypes ( 1919 ) of the collective unconscious; and 6) the principle of individuation ( 1916 ). Jung's own unique theoretical formulations about nature, human and otherwise, were in fact a major departure from Freudian psychoanalysis. Freud's outlook was decidedly atheistic (“a godless Jew,” as...

Modern European Philosophy

Modern European Philosophy   Reference library

Simon D. Podmore

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,138 words

...with the speculative abstractions of Hegel, which “also demonstrates a link between the seemingly disparate goals of Feuerbach’s humanism and Luther’s theology.” Feuerbach’s study of “Luther’s observations of religious consciousness provided a vision of naturalism and passivity in his description of the human being’s experience of existing before God.” 116 What is dissolved, or reintegrated into the self, for Feuerbach is, however, this decisive Lutheran dimension of being before God : a fundamental criterion which Kierkegaard, invoking Luther,...

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