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fundamental rule of psychoanalysis

The principle according to which a patient undergoing psychoanalysis should engage wholeheartedly in free association. Also called the basic rule of psychoanalysis. See also ...

Metonymy

Metonymy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,533 words

...by using their ability to replace the Freudian notions of condensation and displacement as a part of his general claim that the unconscious is structured as a language, and then by extending them to take in the fundamental dimensions of human being as psychoanalysis proposes them—identity and its support in repression, which Lacan argues to be fundamentally metaphoric (the submission of one signifier to another, forcing the first into the unconscious), and desire, the movement of which Lacan takes to be fundamentally metonymic, enchaining one object to...

Pleasure

Pleasure   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,000 words

...which expresses a planet on the brink of self-annihilation and, more particularly, art on the brink of self-annihilation (see Foster, 1993 , and Herwitz, 1995 ). [ See Freud .] Lacan's complex “writing through” of Freud has engendered in his followers a picture of the poetic as an existential and indeed metaphysical state in which the symbolic rule of the father is partly “suspended.” Through an amalgamation of psychoanalysis and avant-garde culture, Lacanians associate the poetically amniotic and disruptive values of modernist writing with the capacity for...

Theories of Art

Theories of Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,130 words

...the aesthetics of Western art. These variously identify mimesis, expression, form, or historical process as central to art's distinctive character or purpose. Two broad trends in the approach to art—autonomism and contextualism—are then contrasted. The suppositions of autonomism have dominated the discussion of art over much of the past two hundred years; contextualism represents a recent reaction to autonomism. Next, the suppositions of modernism and their rejection by postmodernists are outlined. A final section considers Marxism, psychoanalysis, and feminism...

Spinoza, Benedict de

Spinoza, Benedict de (1632–77)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,664 words

...becomes more under our control, and the mind is less passive in respect to it, in proportion as it is more known to us.’ This account of active self-improvement through the analysis and clarification of ideas has led some commentators to greet Spinoza as an early precursor of Freudian psychoanalysis. For Spinoza, the mastery of emotions, and the state of improved understanding achieved through the mind's reasoning powers, enables us to become more active and free. But the freedom which Spinoza grants us has seemed to some to be no freedom at all. When...

Gender

Gender   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,181 words

...Review of Oyeronke Oyewumi’s The Invention of Women: Making an African Sense of Western Gender Discourses .” African Gender Scholarship: Concepts, Methodologies and Paradigms , pp. 61–81. East Lansing, Michigan State University Press, 2000. Chodorow, Nancy . “Family Structure and Feminine Personality.” In Women, Culture and Society , edited by MichelleZimbalist Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere , pp. 43–66. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1974. Chodorow, Nancy . The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender ....

humour

humour   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,730 words

.... —— (1928). ‘ Humour ’. International Journal of Psychoanalysis , 9. Kant, I. (1790). Kritik der Urteilskraft . Keith-Spiegel, P. (1972). ‘Early conceptions of humor: varieties and issues’. In Goldstein, J. H. , and McGhee, P. E. (eds.), The Psychology of Humor: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Issues . La Fave, L. (1977). ‘Ethnic humour: from paradoxes towards principles’. In Chapman, A. J. , and Foot, H. C. (eds.), It's a Funny Thing, Humour . Ludovici, A. M. (1932). The Secret of Laughter . McGhee, P. E. (1979). Humor: Its Origin...

Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund

Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,784 words

...of a “dialectic of appearance,” dissolution is bound up with two aspects. The internal aspect is the questioning of aesthetic appearance in art: the dissolution of the appearance of unity, closure, and meaning in each individual work of art. The external aspect is the overstepping of aesthetic appearance into truth, which thereby takes place in art. It is Adorno's fundamental conviction that the “disintegration” of aesthetic appearance is the “trace” of truth. Furthermore, we know truth not as “devoid of appearance,” but only through the dialectic of...

Genius

Genius   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,954 words

... technē on the side of sanity and poetic success on the side of madness. Nevertheless, one gets a glimpse of the fundamental distinction between what humans can produce according to knowledge that can be expressed in words and rules and what can only be produced in some other state of mind. 4. Daimon . The term daimon refers to a guardian spirit. It is the constellation of ideas around this term that was taken up into Roman mythology and was translated into Latin as genius . Daimon derives from daio , to distribute. Daimon thus emphasizes the...

Creativity

Creativity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,256 words

...of Creative Potential . American Psychologist 20 (1965): 273–281. Roe, Anna . The Making of a Scientist . New York, 1952. Wallach, Michael A. , and Nathan Cogan . A New Look at the Creativity-Intelligence Distinction . Journal of Personality 33 (1965): 348–369. Endowment Bonaparte, Marie . The Life and Works of Edgar Allan Poe: A Psycho-Analytic Interpretation . Translated by John Rodker . London, 1949. Gedo, John E. Portraits of the Artist: Psychoanalysis of Creativity and Its Vicissitudes . New York, 1983. Greenacre, Phyllis . The Childhood of...

Film

Film   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
18,440 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Schrader. Writing in a period of political unrest and disillusionment, film noir critic-directors such as Schrader discerned the continued relevance of the cycle as a vehicle for social commentary. Feminist film noir critics in the 1970s analyzed the film cycle's representations of women as expressions of the misogyny prevalent in patriarchal society and explored the value of psychoanalysis to the interpretation of its corpus. They also directed renewed attention to the cultural construction of the femme fatale and the careers of Barbara Stanwyck , Gloria...

Cavell, Stanley

Cavell, Stanley   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,943 words

...Fleming, Richard . The State of Philosophy: An Invitation to a Reading in Three Parts of Stanley Cavell's The Claim of Reason . Lewisburg, Pa., 1993. Mulhall, Stephen . Stanley Cavell: Philosophy's Recounting of the Ordinary . Oxford, 1994. Smith, Joseph H. , and William Kerrigan , eds. Images in Our Souls: Cavell, Psychoanalysis, and Cinema . Baltimore, 1987. Timothy Gould Cavell and Film Stanley Cavell's The World Viewed ( 1971 ) opens with the words, “Memories of movies are strand over strand with memories of my life.” Writing about movies has been...

infancy, mind in

infancy, mind in   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,170 words
Illustration(s):
5

...philosophies. Psychoanalysis, by focusing on unconscious organizing processes of the individual, created a new interest in the development of the child's separate mental identity: a ‘self’ whose motivation and awareness grow within the protective mother–child relationship. John Bowlby's attachment theory takes up this view and interprets the emotional strength of the mature self as a product of the sensitivity and responsiveness of maternal care in the first years. Cognitivists emphasize the novelty-seeking and problem-solving tendencies of infants as...

Derrida, Jacques

Derrida, Jacques   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,511 words

...discourses that figure among the most modern (in linguistics, in anthropology, in psychoanalysis), to detect in these an evaluation of writing, or, to tell the truth, rather a devaluation of writing whose insistent, repetitive, even obscurely compulsive, character was the sign of a whole set of long-standing constraints. (“The Time of a Thesis: Punctuations,” p. 40) The “strategic device” Derrida speaks of here is an attention to that moment or system of moments in a text through which it appears at once to name itself as a text and to disavow or...

Autonomy

Autonomy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,666 words

...the idiolects of deconstruction, psychoanalysis, complexity theory, and other imported systems. These systems were not merely yoked together with architecture; rather, something of a shift of perspective and level took place in which the specific autonomous forms, operations, and practices could now more clearly be seen not as simply determined by a specific historical context, nor as free from any contextual constraint, but rather as reciprocally producing concepts whose ultimate horizon of effect lay outside of architecture's internal systems of meaning...

Formalism

Formalism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,841 words

...or replication of a history of representationality. The manifest psychologism of formalism, then, would seem to require a Latent psychologism—an inquiry into the past, or reorganized, and the possible, or immanent, significances of the plastic structure or virtual relief, the arrested and annealed intentionality. Here it is not possible to consider the tensions between, and possible historical relations of, the Vienna school manifest psychologism of the art historians and the Vienna school latent psychologism of psychoanalysis. (We could, for...

Sublime

Sublime   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
12,253 words

...her aware of this great mystery and therefore makes her bear the sight of this death with grandeur” ( 1759 ). Does the horror of death yield to the sublime of consent? The witness remains placed before the door of the mystery, where what appears immediately slips away and where the imminence of the inaccessible is felt. View and review the object as we might, “our suspension and, I dare say, our ignorance, still remains” (ibid.). The essential is no doubt of a different order than positive knowledge; the experience of the sublime is fundamental in that it...

French Aesthetics

French Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,609 words

...et al. New York, 1980. Kristeva, Julia . Giotto's Joy. In Calligram: Essays in New Art History from France , edited by Norman Bryson . Cambridge and New York, 1988. Lacan, Jacques . The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis . Edited by Jacques-Alain Miller , translated by Alan Sheridan . New York, 1978. Levin, David Michael , ed. Modernity and the Hegemony of Vision . Berkeley, 1993. Lyotard, Jean-François . Discours, figure . Paris, 1971. Lyotard, Jean-François . Que peindre? Adami, Arakawa, Buren . 2 vols. Paris, 1987. Lyotard, Jean-François . ...

Metonymy

Metonymy   Reference library

Stephen Melville

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,666 words

...by using their ability to replace the Freudian notions of condensation and displacement as a part of his general claim that the unconscious is structured as a language, and then by extending them to take in the fundamental dimensions of human being as psychoanalysis proposes them—identity and its support in repression, which Lacan argues to be fundamentally metaphoric (the submission of one signifier to another, forcing the first into the unconscious), and desire, the movement of which Lacan takes to be fundamentally metonymic, enchaining one...

Damisch, Hubert

Damisch, Hubert (b. 1928)   Reference library

Ernst van Alphen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,391 words

...the process of viewing it. Through a rigorous analysis of the concept of beauty in philosophy and psychoanalysis, and a consideration of the motif of beauty in Western myths and art, Damisch succeeds again in formulating an aspect of art that makes it attractive . Damisch offers this time what Freud himself did not venture: a psychoanalysis of aesthetics. The three theoretical constructions he thus offers in these three studies outline the rules of interaction of which culture consists. They regulate three of the most fundamental domains of culture:...

Theories of Art

Theories of Art   Reference library

Stephen Davies

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,330 words

...discussion of art: Marxism, psychoanalysis, and feminism (treated as if they were unitary theories). Karl Marx ( 1818–1883 ), in his attempt to explain the material (economic) relations that determine social relations, and the implications of these for the unfolding of history, regarded art, and “culture” in general, as belonging to sets of ideas (the “superstructure”) in a society that are determined by economic relations (the “infrastructure”) and the patterns of power generated by these relations. Sigmund Freud ( 1856–1939 ) presented an account of human...

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