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fundamental rule of psychoanalysis

The principle according to which a patient undergoing psychoanalysis should engage wholeheartedly in free association. Also called the basic rule of psychoanalysis. See also ...

Freud, Sigmund

Freud, Sigmund   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
6,423 words

...of Jews were massacred. The narrative assimilates this historical tragedy of the Nazi Holocaust to Anna's fictional life, revealing Anna/Lisa's horrible death. Ultimately, the novel appears to question the nature of psychoanalytic truth, but as Peter Brooks argues in Psychoanalysis and Storytelling ( 1994 ), Freud's late work also argues for the significance of conviction as a kind of fictive truth that supersedes the elusive nature of both historical truth and recovered memories. Brooks stresses the significance of transference to the understanding of...

Literary Theory

Literary Theory   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
8,606 words

...and decimating local cultures. Fundamental to the colonizing process was the slave trade, the dehumanizing practice of forced labor, based largely in Africa, which drove the economies and shaped the values of the early modern age, and the legacy of which continues to impact the world today. Decolonization. The late 1940s to the 1960s was an era of accelerated decolonization, marking a new phase in the history of globalization. At that time, numerous colonies sought and achieved independence from European rule and formed new nations, including India...

Wilde, Oscar

Wilde, Oscar   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
4,846 words
Illustration(s):
1

...tragic consequences.” Ellmann's notion of Salomé as a round-robin of frustrated compulsions has the advantage of explaining why Wilde's play harbors such intense implications of decadence beyond Salome's necrophilic lust for John the Baptist. Her gruesome kiss becomes the enactment of everyone's covert perversity. Nonetheless, there is a fundamental paradox at the heart of any socially positive “perverse” reading of Salomé —namely, that if Wilde contributes a homoerotic dimension to the nineteenth-century myth of Salome, he depicts same-sex lust as...

Woolf, Virginia

Woolf, Virginia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
8,513 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Virginia Woolf . Edited by Susan Dick. New York, 1985. McNeillie, Andrew, ed. The Essays of Virginia Woolf, 1904–1928 . 4 vols. Edited by Andrew McNeillie. New York, 1986–1994. Nicolson, Nigel, and Joanne Trautmann, eds. The Letters of Virginia Woolf . Edited by Nigel Nicolson and Joanne Trautmann. 6 vols. London, 1975–1980. Schulkind, Jeanne, ed. Moments of Being: Unpublished Autobiographical Writings . Edited by Jeanne Schulkind. 1976. 2d ed. New York, 1985. Further Reading Abel, Elizabeth . Virginia Woolf and the Fictions of Psychoanalysis ....

Film Theory, Feminist

Film Theory, Feminist   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,169 words

...worked as a textual system capable of producing strong effects of identification and investment vis-à-vis the spectator. Hence the importance of the gaze. If cinema is primarily a visual medium, then the gaze is what draws the spectator into the dramas of seeing and being seen, and what creates the fundamental narrative and visual components of the cinema, from point-of-view shots to rules of continuity. Another important feature of 1970s film theory was the distinction between dominant and alternative cinemas. Analyses of the apparatus and the gaze took...

Literary Theory in America

Literary Theory in America   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
10,821 words

...a wide range of topics (movies, graphic art, psychoanalysis, poetry). Hirsch, E. D., Jr . The Aims of Interpretation . Chicago, 1976. A clear statement of Hirsch's views on interpretation and authorial intent. Hogan, Patrick Colm . The Mind and Its Stories: Narrative Universals and Human Emotion . Cambridge and Paris, 2003. An examination of cross-cultural patterns in narrative structure, incorporating some of Hogan's earlier essays on the nature of literary universals and cognitive aspects of literary response. Holland, Norman . The Dynamics of Literary...

Russian Formalism

Russian Formalism   Reference library

G. Tihanov

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,761 words

... Arkhaisty i novatory [Archaists and Innovators]). The exceptional significance of Rus. formalism as the first school to assert lit. as an autonomous object of theoretical analysis has obscured its background and complex position among other intellectual formations at the end of the 19th and the start of the 20th c. Formalism was a phenomenon and offspring of late modernity, epistemologically related to positivism, psychoanalysis, and Marxism. Formalism was as technical, precise, meticulous, and cold as positivism itself, but it differed from positivism in...

NEIGHBOR

NEIGHBOR   Reference library

Kenneth Reinhard

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
7,247 words

...reason precisely as the residue of those logics and as something caught up in them but not fully explainable in the terms of either. In his seminar of 1959–60 , The Ethics of Psychoanalysis , Lacan suggests that Freud’s critique of neighbor-love reveals a fundamental truth about jouissance , the traumatic enjoyment that the subject both repudiates and secretly treasures. Lacan connects Freud’s discussion of the Neighbor in Civilization and Its Discontents with his account of the Nebenmensch —literally the “next person,” the first other encountered...

WERT

WERT (GERMAN)   Reference library

Marc de Launay

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
4,806 words

...a principle of the historico-hermeneutic sciences. In early Habermas there is also the concept of “emancipatory” ( emanzipatorisch ) interest derived from the impulse to strive for freedom against the constraints of nature, as well as distinct sociopolitical forms of coercion that have preoccupied the “critical sciences” (ideology critique, psychoanalysis, etc.). Bibliography Habermas, Jurgen . Technik und Wissenschaft als “ Ideologie .” Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1968. Translation by J. Shapiro : “Technology and Science as ‘Ideology.’” In Toward a...

Translation in North America

Translation in North America   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
5,689 words

...approach, a ‘look into the black box of the human mind as it works and reworks during the activity of translating’ ( 1993 : 41). In reaction to the workshop approach, Joseph Graham attempted to move ‘beyond the personal anecdotes and pieces of advice’ (Graham 1981 : 23) to develop a more scientific or objective understanding of translation. In the 1980s, the arrival in the USA of a number of new theories, primarily French and German and thus imported to their American audiences via translation—psychoanalysis, phenomenology, Marxism, feminism,...

AGENCY

AGENCY   Reference library

Étienne Balibar and Sandra Laugier

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
7,145 words

...Darstellung . Vol. 17 of Gesammelte Werke . Frankfurt: Fischer, 1940. Translation by J. Strachey : An Outline of Psycho-Analysis . Vol. 23 of The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud . London: Hogarth Press, 1960. Freud, Sigmund . Neue Folge Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die Psychoanalyse . Vol. 15 of Gesammelte Werke . Frankfurt: Fischer, 1940. Translation by J. Strachey : New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis . Vol. 22 of The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud . London:...

LOVE

LOVE   Reference library

Clara Auvray-Assayas, Charles Baladier, Philippe Būttgen, and Barbara Cassin

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
11,723 words

...love” is merely erotic love metamorphosed, in the best of cases, by sublimation, a process that redirects the infantile libido toward nonsexual cultural goals. This radical Lacanian dichotomy is nonetheless tempered by the fact that for psychoanalysis, “love” designates not only the “choice of object” ( Objektwahl ) but also “transference love” ( Übertragungsliebe ), a phenomenon that is fundamental for the functioning of analytical procedures. It was after the failure of his treatment of his first hysterical patients that Freud theorized transference...

SEX

SEX   Reference library

Geneviève Fraisse

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
5,816 words

...of the debate over sex and gender is a function of the fact that it remains imprisoned in a problematic of identity: the quest for (or the critique of) identity appears to be the fundamental question. Yet a different question might modify the perspective—that of otherness. For in excessively debating the identity of sexuated beings too little is said of their relation, of the relation to the other and to others. Yet that relation—the sexual relation, social relations, relations of domination or emancipation—is historical. The historicity of the difference of...

SUBLIME

SUBLIME   Reference library

Baldine Saint-Girons

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
5,508 words

...is the calling into play of social passions that attach us to more or less contingent objects of pleasure and love; on the other, the stirring of fundamental passions affecting the love of self, or what we would today call narcissism, in its triple—physical, psychological, and moral—dimension. As much, then, as the beautiful will appear to be endowed with “means,” and to that extent, to be capable of being reproduced and of being the subject of academic instruction, just so will the sublime, for its part, appear to dispose only of favored “vehicles,” whose...

Poetry in French

Poetry in French   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
5,792 words

...poetic discourses create a new way of writing about the self, whether they are limited to a dialogue between the poet and his/her own image or whether the words simply pour out as in a confession. No doubt this personal orientation comes from the attraction of autobiography. The practice of autobiography, real or fictional, can be connected to the vein of self-exploration that emerged under the influence of psychoanalysis. Poets take stock of themselves to (re)discover themselves through the fundamental urges of the self. A poet like Paul Chanel...

SIGNIFIER

SIGNIFIER   Reference library

Barbara Cassin, Frédérique Ildefonse, Carita Klippi, and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
10,849 words

...play of the signifier and the existence of the real The place occupied by the signifier in psychoanalysis opens onto a perception of language that is completely different from that of (classically Aristotelian) philosophy. “The giant of language recovers its stature at being suddenly delivered from the Gulliverian bonds of meaning” (“Situation de la psychanalyse en 1956 ,” in Lacan, Écrits , 470). This is intrinscally linked to the analyst’s way of listening to the punctuation of therapy: “We repeat to our students: ‘Beware of understanding!’ … Let one of your...

SOUL

SOUL   Reference library

Étienne Balibar

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
17,999 words

...of mind” it seeks to move beyond the limits Locke assigned to the observation of mind; 2. in the area of Freudian psychoanalysis and its various “topics,” by an apparent return to the multiplicity of structures (or “partial souls”) characteristic of the ancient point of view, but in radically new conditions that have emerged from the combination of the clinical hypothesis of the unconscious and a modern problematics of the subject, which obliges us to inquire anew into the continuity of the notions of psychè and the psyche. As if each of the old...

SIGN

SIGN   Reference library

Barbara Cassin, Mildred Galland-Szymowiak, Sandra Laugier, Alain de Libera, Frédéric Nef, and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
17,133 words

...the notion of a “symbolic system”: Every culture can be considered as a set of symbolic systems, of which language, rules of marriage, economic relations, art, science, and religion are of the first rank. (Lévi-Strauss, “Introduction à l’œuvre de Marcel Mauss”) It is with that grid that Jacques Lacan undertook a return to the Freudian roots of psychoanalysis, formulating the axiom that he would argue until the end of his teaching: “The unconscious is structured like a language.” That axiom lies at the basis of his elaboration of the “symbolic”...

PLEASURE

PLEASURE   Reference library

Charles Baladier, Clara Auvray-Assayas, Jean-François Balaudé, Barbara Cassin, Jean-Pierre Cléro, and Baldine Saint Girons

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
12,291 words

...help us construct a world, either one of physical objects or one of interpersonal relations. They are thus fundamental to the whole of the “springs of action.” Hence the “fictive” or “reflexive” character of pleasures does not prevent us from considering them as neither good nor false, neither true nor false. The principle of utility, which postulates the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number, leads us to put them in a logical and quantitative form, to subject them, by means of multiple rules, to a calculus ( see UTILITY ). Thus when...

Criticism in English

Criticism in English   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
19,651 words

...Campbell Scott and the literature of Treaty 9 ( 1994 ), a study that unites postcolonial theory with a New Historical and cultural-studies approach to early Canadian writing; and Sonia Mycak's In search of the split subject: psychoanalysis, phenomenology, and the novels of Margaret Atwood ( 1996 ). 6(b). One reason why postcolonial theory has been particularly important in Canada is the nature of the demographic change that has taken place since the Second World War. Although Canada has always had a history of immigration and ethnic variety, the...

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