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fundamental rule of psychoanalysis

The principle according to which a patient undergoing psychoanalysis should engage wholeheartedly in free association. Also called the basic rule of psychoanalysis. See also ...

Gender

Gender   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,181 words

...Review of Oyeronke Oyewumi’s The Invention of Women: Making an African Sense of Western Gender Discourses .” African Gender Scholarship: Concepts, Methodologies and Paradigms , pp. 61–81. East Lansing, Michigan State University Press, 2000. Chodorow, Nancy . “Family Structure and Feminine Personality.” In Women, Culture and Society , edited by MichelleZimbalist Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere , pp. 43–66. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1974. Chodorow, Nancy . The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender ....

Reformation Studies

Reformation Studies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
10,576 words

...survey of actual Protestant communities in their formative stages, including their rivalries and doctrinal quarrels, and for its sense of immediacy and authenticity, which no single author could convey. A Legacy of Problems: The Seventeenth Century The Reformation's legacy of unresolved problems in religious allegiance and political organization provided much of the agenda for seventeenth-century scholars. Moreover, the questioning of tradition on an unprecedented scale at the end of the century brought with it a fundamental reexamination of the...

Marxism

Marxism   Reference library

Lauren LANGMAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
3,132 words

...Marx . Darwin’s theory of evolution and Freudian psychoanalysis both fundamentally altered humanity’s understanding of itself. Marx, his ideas, and what his followers did with his ideas were among the most significant factors shaping the political and economic course of the twentieth century. While some have declared Marxism a flawed analysis and a failed ideology, the proclamation of the death of Marxism may yet be premature, as witnessed by the burgeoning antiglobalization movement. Marx’s ideas influenced not only the rise of unionized labor and the...

Legal Realism

Legal Realism   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
4,726 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and charged Dean Pound, of Harvard, with telling “bed-time stories for the tired bar” (p. 435 n. 3) The following year, Pound countercharged that realist law professors had exaggerated the unreliability of legal rules, engaged in empirical work without considering its purpose, overemphasized judicial psychoanalysis, and neglected the role of moral values in law. But Pound did not specifically identify the realists. Llewellyn responded to Pound's “call” by creating, with Jerome Frank , three possible lists of realists, which he sent to Pound in an...

Femininity/Masculinity

Femininity/Masculinity   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
3,073 words

...Bonds of Love: Psychoanalysis, Feminism, and the Problem of Domination . New York: Pantheon Books, 1988. Besnier, Niko . “Polynesian Gender Liminality through Time and Space.” In Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History , edited by Gilbert Herdt , pp. 285–328. New York: Zone Books, 1994. Butler, Judith . Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity . New York: Routledge, 1990. Dimen, Muriel , and Virginia Goldner . “Gender and Sexuality.” In The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychoanalysis , edited...

Sciences

Sciences   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
6,174 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Today. ” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 571 (September 2000): 14–29. Chodorow, Nancy . The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978. Deegan, Mary Jo , ed. Women in Sociology: A Bio‐bibliographical Sourcebook . New York: Greenwood Press, 1991. Gacs, Ute , et al., eds. Women Anthropologists: A Biographical Dictionary . New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. Gilligan, Carol . In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development ....

Sexuality

Sexuality   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
17,153 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and intersexed people. The Twentieth Century. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the emergence of psychoanalysis implied fundamental changes in the perception of sexuality and politics. In his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality ( 1905 ), Sigmund Freud ( 1856–1939 ) followed the evolutionary view of human sexuality, relating the history of the species with that of the life of individuals. According to his interpretation, a person achieved “normal” sexuality only as the result of complicated life processes. Some people were successful at...

Scholars and Scholarship

Scholars and Scholarship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
6,664 words

...to readdress the androcentric field of psychology. In The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender ( 1978 ) and Femininities, Masculinities, Sexualities: Freud and Beyond ( 1994 ), the sociologist and psychoanalyst Nancy Chodorow sought to revise some of Freud's ideas, particularly the Oedipus complex. In her research, the philosopher Sandra Harding has focused on the androcentric and ethnocentric nature of the sciences, stating that “women and men cannot understand or explain the world that we live in or the real choices...

Sexual Reform and Morality

Sexual Reform and Morality   Reference library

April Haynes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...( 1910 – 2010 During the early twentieth century, psychoanalysis and sexology diminished the influence of social purity. Sigmund Freud’s concept of the libido suggested that suppressing sexual expression was wrongheaded. The sexologist Havelock Ellis elaborated on the individual nature of sexuality by exploring “inversion” (homosexuality), by redefining masturbation as benign “autoeroticism,” and by advocating “the erotic rights of woman.” Margaret Sanger considered birth control the most fundamental of women’s rights; her challenge to the Comstock Act...

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