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Overview

foolscap

A size of paper, about 330 x 200 (or 400) mm. It is said to be named from a former watermark representing a fool's cap.

foolscap

foolscap   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
93 words

... Foolscap is a long sheet of paper characterized by a watermark in the shape of a fool's or jester's cap, with its triangular points and bells. The paper varies in size, but, from the fourteenth century onwards, a foolscap sheet was likely to measure approximately 16–18 inches (41–46 cm) in length by 12–13½ inches (30.5–34.5 cm) in width. The term was subsequently applied to the long folio size of paper traditionally associated with that watermark (whether a watermark was actually present or not) e.g. Oxford pads and long typing...

foolscap

foolscap   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
88 words

... Obsolete size of sheet used for writing, drawing, printing, and wrapping papers, measuring between 15×12.75in. (38.1×32.4cm) and 18.5×14.5in. (47×36.8cm), with many named sub-variants. The name is thought to originate from the use of a jester’s head, complete with cap and bells, as the *watermark ; as such it is the clearest example of a watermark being used to name a sheet size. By 1795 in England, this watermark had been supplanted by that of Britannia, or in some cases by the lion rampant. Daven Christopher Chamberlain...

10 Paper

10 Paper   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...heads and hands, keys and pottery; animals, including mythological beasts; and flora and images from nature. Eventually, some items from the second category, depicting human creativity, became synonymous with various paper sizes: beakers and pots ( *pot ), and the fool’s cap ( *foolscap ). By the era of machine-manufactured watermarks, only these images were commonly in use. Some decades later, the trademark was devised: manufacturers, stationers, and latterly customers, introduced named grades of paper to the marketplace, the most famous being Conqueror from...

chancery

chancery   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
34 words

...Obsolete paper sheet size used specifically in legal establishments, being nominally double *foolscap 26.5×16.5in. (67.3×41.9cm), of a cream colour, and with a wove finish. Known also as judicature. Daven Christopher Chamberlain...

pot

pot   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
69 words

...measuring between 15×12.5in. (38.1×31.8cm) to 17.25×14.25in. (43.8×36.2cm), with many named sub-variants. It was the smallest of the uncut handmade sizes, with a name that probably derived from the use of a pot or tankard as a *watermark , in the same way as *crown and *foolscap were so named. Daven Christopher Chamberlain...

sheet, size of

sheet, size of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
120 words

...size of The lateral dimensions of a paper sheet. These became standardized to a relatively limited number of named, accepted size ranges, whose origins are mostly lost in history; such as *pot , *demy , *foolscap , *imperial , *median , *royal , and *chancery . They were further extended by the use of prefixes such as double-, quarto-, or *quad - (multipliers that scaled the basic sheet-size up or down). In the early 20 th century a new range of sizes was developed in Germany, eventually becoming the *A sizes . These have very closely controlled...

twins

twins   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
234 words
Illustration(s):
1

...specifically to its placement within a sheet, or relative to *chain lines , shape, size, and points of attachment. These differences can be useful in securing the provenance and dating of paper sheets. See also watermark identification. Drawings of two late 17 th -century *foolscap *watermarks that are twins : the *sewing dots are visible on the *chain lines . Line drawing by Chartwell Illustrators Daven Christopher Chamberlain A. H. Stevenson , ‘ Watermarks are Twins ’, SB 4 (1951–2),...

letterhead

letterhead   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
301 words

...saw the ascendancy of the corporate logo and integrated typographical designs for all the printed matter used and distributed by a firm. With the advent of the international *A sizes of paper in Europe, standardization replaced a range of earlier formats (e.g. *quarto , *foolscap ) that had also helped to make a business’s printed stationery distinctive. Michael F. Suarez, S.J. G. Hudson , The Design and Printing of Ephemera (2008) P. Pickard , ‘ The History of the Letterhead ’, Printing Review , 75 (1957), 5–20 M. Rickards , Encyclopedia of...

watermark

watermark   Reference library

A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology 1450–2000

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, History
Length:
310 words

...urns) are so common as to be virtually indistinguishable, watermarks were originally used as trade marks, and many found in early modern paper can denote, or be associated with, particular manufacturers, as well as with particular places and dates. Certain watermarks, such as a foolscap or post horn, were also used to distinguish particular paper sizes. The range of watermark designs in hand-made paper is vast, ranging from simple lettering or geometrical shapes, through figures such as animals, birds, flowers, insects, horns, and croziers, to elaborate...

spies

spies   Reference library

Christopher Andrew and M. R. D. Foot

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,066 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as would careful use of a magnifying glass. Much ingenuity was also expended on methods of carrying written messages—whether in cipher or in clear—which would not be easy to detect or intercept. The Germans developed a miniature photograph, called a microdot, which reduced a foolscap page to the size of a full stop; this might easily pass a censor unnoticed. It could be enlarged, or read through a microscope. Casual sources in France were encouraged to report radar sites or V-1 sites ( see V-weapons ) in their area by using carrier pigeons which the RAF...

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