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establishment clause

The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” This establishment clause has been used by the Supreme Court to ...

Bell, John Stuart

Bell, John Stuart   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
844 words

...photons, established that the inequality did not hold. The conclusion seemed to be that nature preferred to act ‘spookily’ at a distance rather than using Einstein's reality principle. At first Bell's five-page paper was ignored. Only when experimentalists such as John Clauser at Berkeley in 1969 took his work up did Bell's argument become widely known. Bell's views on his own work, more tentative and less extreme than those of many of his followers and popularizers, were collected in his Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics ( 1987...

humans in research

humans in research   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,919 words

...Its provisions are now universally observed in research laboratories and clinics all over the world, with the establishment of protocols, approval by research ethics committees, and provision for compensation for any subject still unfortunate enough to be injured despite stringent safeguards. Thus, although long ago enlightened physician–scientists had recognized the need for informed consent ( William Beaumont, for example, putting such a clause in his contract with Alexis St Martin , his patient with the stomach fistula), it took over another 100 years...

Institutions of Science Education

Institutions of Science Education   Reference library

Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu and Marco Demichelis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
8,676 words

...transmitted and the rational sciences, but there is a clause stating that they should teach “various sciences and learning,” while their assistants ( muʿīd ) had to be skilled in “various arts” (  funun-i shatta ) and teach students the art of critical discussion ( mubāḥathah and mukātabah ) under the direction of professors. This change becomes more explicit with the Süleymaniye madrasah s that were established almost one century later by Süleyman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566 ). One of the clauses in the deed of trust clearly stipulated that the task of...

perspectives on technology and society

perspectives on technology and society   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...as powerful campaigners, we could have ended up with quite a different bicycle. In arguments of both the social and the political constructions of technology, authors invoke the “it could be otherwise” clause as a way of exposing different factors involved in the construction. Notably, however, they both deploy specifically limited interpretations of this clause. For example, attention is drawn to political construction as a way of showing how the “actual” effects of a technology disadvantage some users (and empower some others). The nature and status of these...

Creationism

Creationism   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...a practicing Lutheran, Jones ruled that ID was “not science” because it invoked “supernatural causation” and failed “to meet the essential ground rules that limit science to testable, natural explanations.” Thus, even this nonbiblical version of creationism violated the establishment clause of the Constitution. Judge Jones rejected as “utterly false” the assumption “that evolutionary theory is antithetical to a belief in the existence of a supreme being and to religion in general.” His conclusion: “It is unconstitutional to teach ID as an alternative to...

Language

Language   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
6,265 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that another course of action is appropriate. They perform similar functions when people think or attempt to comprehend the meaning of a sentence—for example, they interrupt the sequence of syntactic operations necessary for comprehension when the hearer encounters a relative clause in a sentence such as “The boy who was fat sat down.” Basal ganglia also are implicated in learning. In short, the basal ganglia that regulate overt motor activity also form part of the neural systems that confer human cognitive and linguistic ability. The mark of evolution is...

Rivers As Technological Systems

Rivers As Technological Systems   Reference library

Martin Reuss

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the states or to the national government; whether the Colorado River was navigable; and whether public or private interests should develop water power. In the end, Congress concluded that the Colorado River was at least technically navigable (and therefore subject to the Commerce Clause of the Constitution); that it was also an international stream because it flowed into Mexico; and that—despite intensive lobbying by private power companies—the welfare of the people could best be served in this case through the public sector. This last point was the most...

Investment Law, Foreign

Investment Law, Foreign   Reference library

Kate MILES

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,112 words

...The majority of such treaties contain dispute-settlement clauses permitting an investor to require that the host state resolve the dispute before an international arbitral tribunal, a system known as investor–state arbitration. This system is a decentralized dispute-settlement mechanism comprising ad hoc arbitral panels. There is no permanent dispute-settlement body and no appellate facility. Most investment treaties, however, specify a particular set of procedural rules to govern the establishment and operation of individual tribunals, such as the rules for...

Environmental Law—Africa, Sub-Saharan

Environmental Law—Africa, Sub-Saharan   Reference library

Louis J. KOTZÉ and Werner SCHOLTZ

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
6,364 words

...protocol—for example, the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ( UNCLOS ). To realize the effective management of shared resources, Article 7 provides for dispute resolution between member states, information sharing, the establishment of institutions and instruments for co-management, the establishment of co-management plans, and measures to prevent and eliminate overfishing. It places significant emphasis on the creation and harmonization of national laws to regulate aquatic resources (Article 8) and law enforcement in this respect...

Environmental Law—Antarctica

Environmental Law—Antarctica   Reference library

Alan D. HEMMINGS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,687 words

...boundary for “Antarctica.” The seven claimant states (Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom) apply at least some of their metropolitan environmental law to their asserted Antarctic territories, although sometimes with discretionary clauses in relation to non-nationals; this avoids difficulties with states that do not recognize their jurisdiction or disagreements with obligations under the Antarctic Treaty. Nonclaimant states variably apply their metropolitan environmental law in Antarctica, consistent with their...

Environmental Law—Europe

Environmental Law—Europe   Reference library

Thilo MARAUHN and Ayse Martina BOEHRINGER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
4,102 words

...of a European environmental policy but rather to facilitate the establishment of the common market envisaged by the founding treaties. It was not until 1972 that the EU Paris Summit emphasized the importance of a Community environmental policy and called upon Community institutions to establish a program of action to this end. In the following years, the Community made use of its competences in the field of approximation and harmonization of laws as well as the so-called flexibility clause, permitting Community action in areas not expressly covered by the...

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