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establishment book

‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ... ...

Coffeehouses and Coffee

Coffeehouses and Coffee   Reference library

Michelle Craig McDonald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...it to Mecca, Cairo, and Istanbul in the sixteenth century. From there, coffee drinking spread to western Europe: the first coffeehouses appeared in Italy , France , and England by the early 1600s and had spread across the Atlantic to North America by the 1680 s. These establishments quickly distinguished themselves from taverns and bars, pubs, and inns. Though almost all early modern public houses provided food and drink, and many also offered lodging and stabling, coffeehouses positioned themselves as business institutions by hosting currency-exchange...

Tuskegee University

Tuskegee University   Reference library

Dana R. Chandler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the school donated land for the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital ( 1923 ), the first and only such hospital staffed by black professionals. Moton continued the institutional relationship with financiers such as Julius Rosenwald ( 1862 – 1932 ), which led to the establishment of a foundation specifically to fund programs for underprivileged portions of society and the education of African Americans. Frederick D. Patterson ( 1901 – 1988 ) was Tuskegee’s third president, serving from 1935 to 1953 . In 1944 he founded Tuskegee’s School of...

Utopian and Communitarian Movements

Utopian and Communitarian Movements   Reference library

Catherine M. Rokicky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Fourierism, which criticized civilization and called for cooperation through the establishment of phalanxes. Centered on the phalanstery, which ideally would house 1,620 people, a number Fourier derived by doubling the 810 personality types that he identified, the phalanx depended on agriculture and light industry. Instead of community property, people invested in the phalanx. Men and women would practice free love. The Panic of 1837 and Brisbane’s efforts led to the establishment of more than thirty communities in states including Massachusetts , Ohio , and...

Life Stages

Life Stages   Reference library

Ron Goeken

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a more rigidly age-defined process? One theory is that in the past the timing of these transitions was articulated more by the family’s collective needs. Children remained at home because they had an obligation to contribute to the family income. In addition, marriage and the establishment of an independent household were often contingent on attaining a minimum resource level, which for the urban working class could be a lengthy process. Over the twentieth century, as the economic well-being of most families became less dependent on the contributions of...

African Americans

African Americans   Reference library

Joe W. Trotter Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...founded in 1909 . Urbanization and northern migration profoundly affected African American cultural life as well. Black churches, including those of the Baptist, Pentecostal, and African Methodist Episcopal (AME) denominations, ranging from struggling storefronts to large establishments with thousands of members, provided spiritual and social support to urban newcomers. From the black communities of New Orleans , Kansas City, Chicago , and other cities emerged vibrant new adaptations of musical traditions rooted in the past, including ragtime, gospel,...

Social Class

Social Class   Reference library

Mark Pittenger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...be composed of the high and the low, the rich and the mean, all laboring to advance the common good. During the constitutional debates of 1787 , James Madison hoped that the baleful effects of “factions” based on the unequal ownership of property might be mitigated by the establishment of a diverse and expansive federal republic. With the stirrings of industrial development and the increasing ubiquity of wage-labor relations in the first half of the nineteenth century, concerns arose about the place of classes and the appearance of capitalist exploitation in...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

Peter W. Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...States : here missions and military presidios both represented—sometimes in tension—the imperial presence. The most comprehensive effort to Christianize the natives did not take place until the latter days of the Spanish presence, when the Franciscan Junípero Serra began the establishment in 1769 of what ultimately became twenty-one mission states between present-day San Francisco and San Diego . Indians who were persuaded to join these communities were obliged to embrace a settled agricultural existence along with the Christian religion. The failure of...

Education

Education   Reference library

Benjamin Justice

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...for the vast Protestant majority included the ability to read sacred texts—especially, for Puritans, the Bible—and, increasingly, the ability to write. Apprenticeships for vocational training included provisions for formal education. For book learning, beginning students used a primer, either in the form of a small bound book or a hornbook containing the alphabet, basic letter combinations, and the Lord’s Prayer. From there, children would move to prayer books and Bibles, as well as chapbooks and, by the mid-eighteenth century, a variety of schoolbooks, fables,...

Women Workers

Women Workers   Reference library

Lara Vapnek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC), to hear complaints. Aimed primarily at promoting racial equality, the EEOC was unprepared for the barrage of grievances from women that soon flooded its office. In 1966 the failure of the federal government to respond spurred the establishment of the National Organization for Women (NOW). Led by Betty Friedan, the author of the Feminine Mystique ( 1963 ), and including labor leaders such as Dorothy Haener of the United Auto Workers, NOW championed women’s rights to full workplace equality, calling for equal...

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