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establishment book

‘Establishment book’ is a term applied to a formal register or account book listing in detail, with their respective fees and order of precedence, the principal offices of the realm ... ...

journalists as characters

journalists as characters   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
558 words

...low-class scandalmonger whose vocation is to expose corruption in the establishment even if he has to invent it. Slide appears in Phineas Finn and Phineas Redux as the nemesis of Phineas, running against him for Parliament and then attempting to discredit him socially as well as politically. In The Prime Minister Slide attacks the Duke of Omnium and his coalition government in retaliation for a social snub. Trollope disparages the integrity of Nicholas Broune , Alfred Booker , and Ferdinand Alf , three editors with whom the hack novelist Lady...

Bulwer-Lytton, Edward

Bulwer-Lytton, Edward (1803–73)   Reference library

Adam Roberts

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
562 words

...friendship with Dickens, however, did not really blossom until 1850 when the two men founded the Guild of Literature and Art together. This enterprise shows the extent to which they considered the career of the writer a serious vocation. As a means of contributing to the establishment of what they both called ‘our Order’, Bulwer wrote a play ( Not So Bad As We Seem ) which was produced (and acted in) by Dickens several times during 1851 ( see amateur theatricals ). The Guild may eventually have come to nothing, but the friendship between Bulwer-Lytton...

Marion Fay

Marion Fay   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,569 words

...political friends, George Roden , a well-conducted clerk in the Post Office. Her father and stepmother are horrified, but she remains firm. Worse is to come. Hampstead falls in love with Roden's neighbour Marion Fay, whose Quaker father is a clerk in a modest commercial establishment. Hearing this news, Lady Kingsbury decides that Hampstead is a traitor to his class and begins to long for his death. But Marion refuses Hampstead's offer. Though she loves him, she is rightly convinced that an early death from consumption will be her fate. Her death leaves...

Stephen, Leslie

Stephen, Leslie (1832–1904)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
871 words

...with Stephen began, Hardy appears not to have objected to altering his work to suit the Cornhill 's readership. This willingness to compromise his artistic aims may have been urged on by the blandishments of higher returns for his work and exposure to a well-heeled establishment audience. However, increased confidence about the integrity of his art and methods, and, possibly, the popular success of Far from the Madding Crowd , eventually emboldened him to refuse to make concessions. Thus when he offered Stephen The Return of the Native in 1877 ,...

Lady Anna

Lady Anna   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,011 words

...the outrage of his colleagues and the general curiosity of the legal community. He ignores legal etiquette, holds irregular meetings with the opposing parties, and seems, awful thought, to be acting for the general good rather than simply for his own client. The bemused legal establishment speculates that he will ruin his career. Unusual among Trollope 's barristers in following inner light and conviction, in the end he manages everyone and everything in the light of ‘truth’, and establishes harmony, which culminates in his benignly furthering the marriage of ...

women and women's issues

women and women's issues   Reference library

Ella Westland

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,271 words

...calmly efficient, was charged with the vital function of holding together the middle-class home, that essential foundation of the Victorian social structure. In promoting the image of the ‘Home Goddess’ ( OMF 2.13), Dickens was therefore playing an influential role in the establishment of a new set of values which underpinned the growing power of the middle classes. Many readers have been critical of Dickens's perfect heroines and disappointingly conservative attitudes. However, these negative views do not give enough weight to Dickens's public involvement...

textual studies

textual studies   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,861 words

...of justifiable texts they might produce, so long as the process involved is fully explained and all the textual evidence presented. Much depends upon the editor's own theoretical orientation. The imminent advent of interactive electronic editions will render editorial establishment of any text unnecessary. The primary issues in editing Hardy's fiction have been two. Since the publication of Gatrell's ‘Hardy, House-Style, and the Aesthetics of Punctuation’ (in Anne Smith (ed.), The Novels of Thomas Hardy ( 1979 ), 169–92) it has been accepted by most...

readership: literacy and the reading public

readership: literacy and the reading public   Reference library

Rosemarie C. Sultan

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,011 words

...his novels as an index to the relative empowerment of characters as a whole. We might take as an example Our Mutual Friend , a novel particularly concerned with issues of literacy. As the narrator says early on in the book (Dickens's idiosyncratic punctuation emphasizing the weightiness of the point): ‘No one who can read, ever looks at a book, even unopened on a shelf, like one who cannot’ (1.3). In that novel literacy equals empowerment in a straightforward way: Gaffer Hexam 's unconsidered hostility to the very idea of himself or his children being taught...

Paris

Paris   Reference library

Andrew Sanders

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,405 words

...essays suggest a man both haunted by, and darkly speculative about what he had seen. On one occasion he claims to have been intrigued by the body of ‘a large dark man whose disfigurement by water was in a frightful manner comic’; when he later swims at one of several bathing-establishments on the river he suddenly feels nauseous at having taken some water into his mouth, ‘for I fancied that the contamination of the creature was in it’. The disturbing image continues to haunt him at a fencing display in the Rue St Honoré, as he gazes in shop-windows in the...

urbanization

urbanization   Reference library

F. S. Schwarzbach

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,190 words

...social change as well. Robert Vaughan triumphantly proclaimed the 19th century ‘The Age of Great Cities’ in his optimistic 1843 book of the same title, but contemporary writers were more likely to respond with panic to the vast terrae incognitae of urban England. The rhetoric of contrast between city and country—vice and virtue, disease and health, misery and happiness, and so on—is as old as the establishment of the first city, but in the 1820s and following decades it became charged with urgency. Much of the impetus came from fear of revolutions,...

Church of England

Church of England   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,092 words

...notice of Jane Eyre in the Church of England Journal ( 16 Dec. 1847 ) gratified her because, she told W. S. Williams , ‘I love the Church of England. Her Ministers, indeed I do not regard as infallible personages, I have seen too much of them for that—but to the Establishment, with all her faults—the profane Athanasian Creed excluded—I am sincerely attached’ (Smith Letters , 1. 581). The Brontës had no love for the High Church tendencies of the Oxford Movement , but like Anne, Charlotte admired some unorthodox liberal Anglicans. Of all the...

reputation of Dickens

reputation of Dickens   Reference library

Adam Roberts

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,057 words

...version of Dickens) decides to take up the cause of Hiram's Hospital in his latest book. This sense of Dickens as vulgar, driven by Popular Sentiment rather than truth, liable to exaggeration and caricature, is in a sense the flip-side of his reputation as the greatest popular entertainer of his day. In one instance a reviewer criticized Dickens in Little Dorrit for straying beyond the bounds of mere entertainer and for libelling the upper classes and establishment, which provoked a waspish reply in Household Words . The review, entitled ‘The License...

Our Mutual Friend

Our Mutual Friend   Reference library

Paul Schlicke

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,025 words

...have stifled and darkened my invention.’ Six months later he wrote again to Forster to say that he doubted whether he ‘could force an original book out’ ( 5 October 1862 ). The better part of a year passed, and on 9 August 1863 he lamented to Wilkie collins , ‘I am always thinking of writing a long book, and am never beginning to do it’. In October he told Forster that he was ‘exceedingly anxious to begin my new book’, and insisted that ‘I see my opening perfectly’, but wanting to have at least five numbers in hand before he began publishing feared lest he...

essayists

essayists   Reference library

John Drew

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,023 words

...by the sharper attacks of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine , in which the pens of J. G. lockhart and John wilson proved their proverbial superiority over the sword, in the wounds they inflicted on the ‘Cockney School’ of Romantic poets and essayists in England. The establishment of the London Magazine in the final year of the Regency provided an opportunity for essayists such as Hazlitt , Leigh hunt , Charles lamb , and Thomas hood to retaliate, but they did so by celebrating their city's folklore and eccentricities in a studiedly whimsical...

Gosse, Edmund

Gosse, Edmund (1849–1928)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,219 words

...months or so before the Gosses' marriage. At this time the 25-year-old Gosse was already at the heart of the London literary scene, and was meeting *Swinburne almost daily when released from his work at the British Museum. Gosse later became a leading figure in the literary establishment ( H. G. Wells called him the ‘official British man of letters’), and numbered among his many friends Henry *James and R. L. *Stevenson as well as Hardy. He was knighted in 1925 . In many ways and for long periods Gosse was Hardy's most intimate friend. Nearly 300 letters...

emigration and colonization

emigration and colonization   Reference library

Leon Litvack

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,356 words

...fictional, and personal interests in emigration and colonization. The years of his life saw the development of Australia , the settling of New Zealand, the Durham Report, Canadian Confederation, the expansion of South Africa, the exploration of tropical Africa, the establishment of coastal colonies, the extension of British rule in India , and an uprising against colonial rule in Jamaica ( see Eyre, Edward John ). By the later 1840s circumstances such as the increased pressures of industrial labour, coupled with bourgeois apprehension over the poor,...

censorship

censorship   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,103 words

...the English novel into the adult world that his final two great novels, Tess and Jude , were more of a challenge to Grundyism and the Establishment's attempt to censor what the public were allowed to read than anything he had written before. Something has already been said about Hardy's difficulties in finding a publisher for the serial version of Tess , and about the way in which he was forced to bowdlerize the book in order to overcome the moral objections of a magazine editor so sensitive that he would not allow Angel Clare to carry the milkmaids...

Dombey and Son

Dombey and Son   Reference library

Paul Schlicke

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,182 words

...appears in a letter to Forster , nine days after the launch of the Daily News : ‘I have been revolving plans in my mind this morning for quitting the paper and going abroad again to write a new book in shilling numbers’ ( 30 January 1846 ). On 9 February he resigned his editorship and the next month wrote to the Countess of Blessington of ‘vague thoughts of a new book’ which had him ‘wandering about at night in the strangest places, according to my usual propensity at such a time—seeking rest, and finding none’ ( 2 March 1846 ). On 31 May he left London with...

education

education   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,504 words

...three major characters in the novel, two are also associated with education, and specifically with the teaching profession. Phillotson, the ‘schoolmaster’ of the book's opening sentence, has his own ambitions but enjoys little more success than Jude in realizing them. Sue Bridehead attends a training college whose description is closely based on that in Salisbury, the Anglican establishment at which Hardy's sisters had trained. For Sue, as for Fancy Day much earlier, the teaching profession has offered one of the few opportunities for independence...

Time's Laughingstocks

Time's Laughingstocks   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,036 words

...morality: see ‘The Dark-Eyed Gentleman’, a clever pastiche of a bawdy folksong; the satirical mockery of ‘The Conformers’; and ‘The Christening’, with its challenge to conventional marriage. Hardy might be able to get away with these avant-garde ideas in his poetry, but the Establishment was still capable of showing its displeasure. When a new Poet Laureate was needed in 1913 , Hardy was passed over in favour of Robert Bridges , a conventional minor poet. It was the same with the Nobel Prize, which during the years of Hardy's greatest fame was awarded to a...

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